Researchers & professionals

Current Research Projects

The evolving threat and impact of antimicrobial resistance to the Illawarra Shoalhaven population – a service utilisation perspective

Collaboration with the Centre for Health Research Illawarra Shoalhaven Population

The project aims to examine the relationship between antimicrobial resistance and patient health care service utilisation rates and clinical outcomes across the Illawarra Shoalhaven region. It is hypothesized that antimicrobial resistance is associated with higher utilization of health care resources and with poorer outcomes.

The threat and impact of antimicrobial resistance across the Illawarra Shoalhaven population – trends and evolution of multi-resistant organisms

Collaboration with Southern IML Pathology

This project is an initiative of WARRA, the Wollongong Antimicrobial Resistance Research Alliance. This project aims to identify the trends in antimicrobial resistance over a 10 year period across the Illawarra Shoalhaven region for organisms including staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia, enterobacter spp, pneumococcus and haemophilus influenza. It further aims to determine the evolution of antimicrobial resistance in an individual over time.

Antibiotic use and misuse – the development of a community measure

This project aims to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measuring factors contributing to antibiotic use within the community, utilising the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a means of predicting problematic behaviour with antibiotics and informing future intervention strategies.


The perceived role of nurses in reducing inappropriate use of antimicrobials

This project aims to explore the perceptions of nursing students, primary care nurses, and acute care nurses about the nursing role in reducing inappropriate use of antimicrobials. It is a qualitative based project and will employ the use of focus groups.


Hygiene maintenance in early childhood education

This project aims to conduct a qualitative analysis of early childhood educators attitudes and behaviours with respect to hygiene maintenance in early childhood education and care settings.


Detection and removal of antibiotic compounds within the Illawarra Shoalhaven wastewater systems

This project aims to establish a method for detecting common antibiotic compounds, used both within the human and animal space, within the local wastewater supply.


OUTBREAK (One-health Understanding through Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics Knowledge)

Collaborative project led by the University of Technology Sydney, in conjunction with 11 partner organisations

This collaborative project aims to develop a nation-wide knowledge engine capable of predicting antimicrobial resistant outbreaks. Using sensor technologies, data, knowledge and artificial intelligence, OUTBREAK, will allow researchers to trace, isolate and treat resistant strains to fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria.




Antimicrobial Resistance Pharmacy Education Workshop Series

WARRA has developed a workshop series initiative with the aim of engaging pharmacists in the Illawarra Shoalhaven region. The workshop series provides a continuing professional development (CPD) accredited platform for pharmacists to engage with local clinicians and researchers regarding antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance. The workshop series is tailored to both community and hospital pharmacists and aims to provide these clinicians with the skills to better understand the drivers of patient behaviour, in an effort to reduce over use and over demand of antibiotics.

For further details about upcoming workshops please contact Janaye Fish, WARRA Project Officer.



The drivers of antibiotic use and misuse: the development and investigation of a theory driven community measure
Mitchell K. Byrne, Sebastien Miellet, Anica McGlinn, Janaye Fish, Shahla Meedya, Nina Reynolds, Antoine M. van Oijen


WARRA has several publications underway. Please refer back to this page.


"But what happens when the antibiotics stop working? In short, we need to be smarter with our treatment. This relies on clinical research and on better stewardship, improved diagnostics, and effective health education."

– Professor Jonathan Ross, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR, 2019)


Get Involved


WARRA is an interdiscplinary research team. We are always looking to establish new collaborations, so if you want to get involved to help us tackle AMR, we would love to hear from you.

Email us at or follow us on Twitter @WARRA_AMR.