Solid Earth

Plate tectonics sets our planet apart: It shapes the composition of the atmosphere, oceanic circulation, climate, sea level, and the evolution of life. As solid Earth scientists, we use geological, geochemical and geophysical methods to decipher Earth's tectonic history, to understand the forces driving plate tectonics, and to identify the location of natural resources, including critical minerals that are key to the transition to a low-emission economy.