Power electronic converter–based generators are replacing conventional synchronous generators, reducing system strength.
Faster frequency dynamics, reduction of inertia and spatial diversity in power generation are challenges for future grids requiring innovative solutions and a skilled workforce in the energy generation sector.
The connection of large inverters into weak grids can increase the risk of system instability, which would require substantial investment in network upgrades and grid strengthening.
Mitigation of network issues during low voltage ride-through operation of wind/solar inverters
Improving frequency response of the grid using grid-forming inverter-based generation
Pumped hydro storage and customer responsiveness to support power grids
Development of high-performance zinc-ion batteries for grid-scale energy storage
Multi-port inverter design for integration of multiple energy resources with power grids
In the absence of synchronous machines and with the growth of renewables, both emergency and operational management of transmission system to maintain constant frequency and voltage becomes more difficult.
As outlined in the national electricity rules (NER), inverter-based generators must provide frequency and voltage support to the wider grid, based on their capabilities.
Research on wide-area monitoring and control, grid synchronisation, and damping on power system oscillation will offer a pathway for improving operation of energy transmission.
Design of a phase-locked loop for inverters to avoid grid synchronisation instability
Optimal mix of generation in power grid rich with renewables to maximise economic benefits under uncertainty
PMU based wide-area control to achieve improved grid stability
Controlled islanding to limit cascading fault events
Damping of power system oscillations by controlling the set-points of wind/solar power plant controllers
Distribution network service providers (DNSPs) are encountering challenges in managing unprecedented levels of inverter-interfaced generating resources.
Unless managed well, electric vehicles (EVs) and their associated charging infrastructure may further complicate the issue.
The contributions from inverters (at the front end of the generators) and customer loads are vitally important to resolve some of these technical issues.
Coordination of local voltage control linked with reactive flow management
Design of energy trading based on block-chain technology for two-sided markets
DER to support orchestration of high power EV charging infrastructure in weak grids
DER to maintain power supply through rural feeders having low customer density
Resilient power system infrastructure model to cope with the adverse weather conditions
A customer-centric approach is essential for effective utilisation of local generating resources such as rooftop solar PV systems, battery storage and EVs.
Virtual Power Plants (VPPs), where many distributed energy resources are aggregated to work in unison, can provide ancillary network support using a new market framework.
Fast demand response through customer engagement is necessary to address these. For example, voltage control in distribution lines can have contributions from inverters and customer loads facilitated by fast communications.
Virtual power plants (VPPs) for providing ancillary grid services
Customer-side demand management using renewables, storage and load control
Progressive model predictive control for the management of grid-connected energy and water resources
Peer-to-peer energy sharing market framework with an all-in-one edge-to-cloud solution
Effects of SiC and GaN-based variable speed-motor drives on-grid power quality
Hydrogen is a new technology and the industry has not widely explored the benefits of hydrogen energy on power grids.
Clean hydrogen can be generated from renewable energy surplus at no energy cost, however, the variability of the input power to electrolysers supplied by renewables may be an issue for efficient hydrogen production.
The surplus renewable energy can be stored using hydrogen for carbon-free energy storage. Storing and transporting hydrogen requires special arrangements.
Australia is looking to position itself as a key exporter in the future global H2 market.
Production of hydrogen from renewable energy surplus
Large scale solid-state hydrogen storage for transportation and grid integration
Grid integration of hydrogen energy resources to support power grids
Ramp rate control of hydrogen/battery/pumped storage to support grid frequency
Smoothing power output of fuel-cells using super-capacitors as buffer storage
Investigation of the challenges related to the integration of renewable and distributed energy technologies and their impacts on electricity supply system resilience, including quality of supply, reliability, protection and management and control systems.
Development of technologies to increase the renewable energy hosting capacity of distribution networks while maintaining reliability and power quality.
Identification of the technological advances in power electronics, and data processing as they relate to the integration of renewable and distributed energy sources.
Integration of large scale off-shore/on-shore renewable energy plants/farmsinto the grids using HVDC/HVAC transmission and identification of their stresses and impacts on electricity supply system resilience.
Investigation of HVDC transmission including the latest voltage sourced converter (VSC) technology to stabilise and secure the power system containing intermittent and low inertia renewable generation (e.g.solar PV and windfarms).
Identification of the electricity network planning practices that may have to change to accommodate the increasing penetration of low carbon transports and electric vehicles.
Investigation of the opportunities presented for demand management through vehicle-to-grid applications.
Identification of the power quality implications of wide spread use of electric vehicles and grid integration of charging stations and their management.
Investigation of the capacity, capability and technological barriers for use of energy storage systems and renewable hydrogen as technology enablers for increased renewable energy generation and utilisation.
Investigation of the regulatory or standardisation barriers to increasing use of energy storage and renewable hydrogen for supporting power grids.
Quantification of benefits using energy storage and renewable hydrogen technologies for low carbon economy.
Identification of the standards and regulations required to ensure the security of future electricity supply systems.
Exploration into how the electricity supply grids of the future, especially at low, medium and high voltage, should be designed, planned and constructed to enable best facilitation of renewable and distributed generation sources.
Investigation of the best ways to model power systems with high penetration levels of renewable and distributed technologies at power transmission and distribution level incorporating energy storage and renewable hydrogen.
Development of effective protection techniques for the protection of a microgrid containing renewable resources of different penetration levels to ensure appropriate islanding operation of the microgrid by means of islanding detection, resynchronisation of the microgrid when mains return, and power export/import to/from the utility grid when necessary.
Development of Virtual Power Plant (VPP) technologies for both grid support and better customer engagement.
Development of a framework for coordinated integration of the emerging energy technologies using IoT and smart appliances so that their detrimental impacts are minimal.
Development of data driven solutions using data mining and AI techniques for cost-effective operation and control of power grids.
Integration of emerging IoT technologies and machine learning techniques into power grids for real-time monitoring and early warning of disasters.
Development of a deeper understanding of the holistic implications of the new generation and storage technologies on power quality and reliability of supply systems.
Investigation of how to best manage the power quality emissions from large renewable energy generators.
Understanding of the reliability benefits and/or challenges relevant to the transition from large centralised to a distributed environment.