PASS builds upon the work of social constructivists such as Piaget (1958) and Vygotsky (1978) to establish a peer learning environment. For a detailed educational framework that describes what happens in PASS, see Martin & Arendale (1993). Tinto (1987) places PASS in a First Year Experience (FYE) context and describes it as a way of linking a learning community to a subject, an approach that has a role in increasing student retention. PASS is differentiated from remedial approaches as it targets "high-risk" subjects rather than "high-risk" students, thus avoiding the stigma attached to remedial programs and students' reluctance to self-refer to such programs: "whether through denial, pride, or ignorance, students who need help the most are least likely to request it" (Martin & Arendale 1993).
Arendale, D. (Ed.). (2005). Postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs annotated bibliography. [ONLINE] PDF
Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1993). Foundation and theoretical framework for Supplemental Instruction. Supplemental Instruction; Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses, 2, 41-50.
Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1958). Growth of logical thinking. New York: Basic Books.
Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college. University of Chicago Press Chicago.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
Journal of Peer Learning
SI Staff from UMKC (2006), UMKC Supplemental Instruction Annotated Bibliography of Articles, Book Chapters, Dissertations, and Monographs
Australian PASS/SI Publications
McKenzie, J. et. al. (2005), Dissemination, Adoption & Adaptation of Project Innovations in Higher Education, University of Technology- Sydney
Murray, M.H. (2001), Students: managing to learn; teachers: learning to manage, Chapter 9 in "Student Assisted Teaching: A Guide to Faculty-Student Teamwork ", Miller, Groccia & Miller (eds) Anker Publishing Co.Ltd, Boston, USA
Murray, M.H. (1999), Building networks through peer interaction, Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering, American Society for Civil Engineers, October, Vol.125, No.4, pp 159-162
Murray, M.H. (1997), Better learning through curricular design at a reduced cost, Journal of Engineering Education, Amer.Soc.Eng.Ed., October, Vol.86, No.4, pp 309-313.
Murray, M.H. (1997), Students, learning, resources - an inseparable triad, Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, Aust.Assoc.Eng.Ed., November, Vol.7, No.2.
Murray, M.H., Grady, J., Perrett, S., (1997), Students managing students' learning, Proc. 9th Conf. Aust. Assoc.Eng.Education, pp. 315-319, University of Ballarat, 14-17 December.
Murray, M.H. (1996), Resources for the resourceless - maximising student learning, Proc. 8th Conf. Aust. Assoc.Eng.Education, Sydney, December.
Murray, M.H. (1994), Integrating internal and distance education, Proc. 6th Conf. Aust.Assoc.Eng. Education., Sydney, December.
Howitt, G. & Harding, N. (2000), 'Supplemental instruction and the first course in accounting,' Asian Review of Accounting, 8 (1), pp. 123-139
Lodewijks, J. & Otto, G. (2004), 'Innovative responses to learning constraints.' Paper presented at the Economic Education Conference: What we teach and how we teach it. Perspectives on Economics from around the globe, July 13-16, 2004. UniSA: Adelaide.
Watson, J. (1996), 'Peer assisted learning in Economics at the University of New South Wales,' 4th Annual Teaching Economics Conference Proceedings. June 28, 1996. Northern Territory University: Darwin, pp. 95 - 104.
Watson, J. (1997), 'Supporting the learning of international students: Strategies in use at UNSW,' Research and Development in Higher Education Vol. 20. Advancing International Perspectives: Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australia (HERDSA). HERDSA: Adelaide, pp. 750 - 756.
Watson, J. (2000), 'A peer assistance support scheme (PASS) for first year core subjects,' Conference Proceedings, 4th Pacific Rim First Year in Higher Education COnference: Creating Futures for a New Millenium, July 5 - 7, 2000. QUT: Brisbane.