HUMAN RESEARCH ETHICS

INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH ETHICS: ISSUES, GUIDELINES, PRINCIPLES AND VALUES

PART C:
Achievement Test

The following questions are designed to enable you to show that you have understood the essential features of the structure of National Statement.

Feedback is provided on your answers. Where this indicates that you have not selected the optimal answer, you will be directed to review this Part and answer the question a second time.

C1 Which of the following statement best describes the nature of values, principles and guidelines as understood in the National Statement?

Select which of the following you regard as the best answer.

     

values are intuitive personal preferences, principles are only justifications for behaviour and guidelines are rules about conduct


This is not the best answer. In the National Statement, values are described as emerging from social and cultural history, principles have a wider role than justification and guidelines are less prescriptive than rules. Please review the material in tis Part and answer the question again.

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values are enduring social and cultural beliefs; principles are general


This is the best answer.

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values are historical aspirations, principles are theoretical accounts of human motivation and guidelines are rigid definitions of acceptable conduct.


This is not the best answer. While values in the National Statement have historical sources, they are more concrete than aspirations, principles are not merely theoretical and guidelines are not rigid or defining - they are guidelines.


C2 Which of the following statements best describes the relationship among values, principles and guidelines in the National Statement?

Select which of the following you regard as the best answer.

     

Values that set out enduring standards are reflected in the normative expression of principles and both values and principles form the basis and, where necessary, justification for guidelines.


This is the best answer.

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values are aspirations to which the principles aspire and to which the guidelines can be related.


This is not the best answer. Values, being more than aspirations, have a closer relationship to principles than one of aspiration and guidelines are, in turn, derived rather than merely related to principles. Please review the material in this Part and answer the question again.

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values are the foundational theoretical positions from which principles and, in turn, guidelines are logically derived.


This is not the best answer. The nature of ethics as part of moral philosophy is different from analytical or positivist philosophy in that relationships among propositions is rational but not formally logical. Values are more complex sources of principles and principles of guidelines than mere logical relationships can explain. Please review the material in this Part and answer the question again.


C3 Which of the following statements best describes the role and function of the National Statement?

Select which of the following you regard as the best answer.

     

The National Statement prescribes the only ways in which human research can be conducted lawfully in Australia.


This is not the best answer. The National Statement does not claim, nor does it of itself have, legal status and contains little information on the legality of human research. It can be given contractual status by funding contracts and does have some legislative basis in research involving therapeutic goods and decisions involving waiver of consent to the use of personal information. Please review the material in this Part and answer the question again.

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The National Statement provides broad and elastic parameters that offer a theoretical account of the way that researchers in Australia should aspire to conduct human research.


This is not the best answer. The National Statement is more than aspirational. Its basis in the status of its issuing organisations and agencies and the public consultation process though which it was developed give it moral weight as a practical and operational guide to the design, review, conduct and monitoring of human research. Please review the material in this Par and answer the question again.

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The National Statement presents the necessary, but not always the sufficient, ethical conditions for the design, review, conduct and monitoring of beneficial human research in Australia.


This is the best answer.