HUMAN RESEARCH ETHICS

INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH ETHICS: ISSUES, GUIDELINES, PRINCIPLES AND VALUES

PART B:
Achievement Test

The following questions are designed to enable you to show that you have understood what are typical human research ethics issues and how they arise in human research projects.

Feedback is provided on your answers. Where this indicates that you have not selected the optimal answer, you will be directed to review this Part and answer the question a second time.

B1 Which one or more of the following is a typical issue of human research ethics?

Select which of the following you regard as the best answer.

     

will the freedom of people to express their personal opinions be protected?


This is not the best answer. Limits on freedom of speech are not typically apposite to research - indeed most research assumes, encourages and depends on openness from participants. Please review the material in this Part and answer the question again.

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Will the freedom of people to choose to be included or not be protected?


This is the best answer. Freedom of association, or, more typically, the right to participate and withdraw from research is an important ethical issue.

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will the freedom of people to control the use of information about themselves be protected?


This is the best answer. The right to confidentiality and privacy and the right to consent to how information collected in research is to be used is always important.


B2 What are the identifying features of issues in human research ethics?

Select which of the following you regard as the best answer.

     

they always arise from the researcher's objectives.


This is not the best answer. Objectives of researchers can be sound or selfish but they alone do not give rise to ethical issues, although their implementation might. Please review the material in this part and answer the question again.

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they always arise from the ways that researchers relate to participants.


This is the best answer. Almost all human research ethics issues emerge from the way that relationships between participants and researcher are designed and implemented. Some issues can arise from the conception and design or research, as, for instance, when research has not merit because it is repeating work already done. Even here, it is the fact the researcher's request to participate is to do something that is of no value that gives rise to the ethical issue.

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they always arise from the social and cultural background of the intended participants.


This is not the best answer. Cultural respect can be an important ethical issue, but it is the respect shown by researchers in their relationship with participants - not the mere fact of a particular cultural background - that gives rise to the ethical issue. Please review the material in the Part and answer the question again.


B3 Which issues of ethics ALWAYS arise in a human research ethics project?

Select which of the following you regard as the best answer.

     

Whether potential participants have enough information on which to decide whether to participate or not.


This is the best answer. Because people have no duty to participate in research, consent based on sufficient information and an adequate understanding is always an ethical issue.

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Whether any risks to participants can be justified by the potential benefits of the research.


This is also the best answer. Even where risks are low, it remains an issue of ethics that they are justified.

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Whether the participants will have access to the benefits of the research after it is completed.


This is not the best answer. Although this is the case in clinical trials that test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or treatments, it is not ALWAYS an issue in other areas of research. Please review the material in the Part and answer the question again.