Straits of Makassar, Sulawesi

1365: The epic poem The Nagarakertagama, in praise of King Rajasanagara of Majahapit, lists Makassar as one of the kingdom's tributaries.

1400: Bugis-Makassar states, and new writing systems, develop.

Sixteenth Century: 1500AD-1600AD

1511-48: King of Gowa, Tunipa'risi Kallona, establishes Makassar state.

1547-77: Appointment of King Tunipasuru of Tallo's son and successor Tumenganga ri Makkaoayang as chief minister (baligau) of Gowa. Continues to reign in Tallo'.

1548-66: Reign of Tunipalangga, son of Tunipa'risi Kallona.

1565-66: Two successive rulers of Gowa, Tunipalangga and Tunibatta, (also a son of Tunipa'risi Kallona), are killed in wars against Bone, Makassar's trading rival.

1577: Tumenganga ri Makkaoayang of Tallo' dies. Succeeded by his daughter I Sambo and her husband Tunijallo, grandson of Tunia'risi Kallona of Gowa.

1590: I Sambo dies, Tunijallo murdered. Their son, Tunipassulu' becomes ruler of both kingdoms. Alone among Makassar's kings the chronicles have little good to say of him.

1593: Tunipassulu' overthrown by group of Makassar chiefs.

1593: Another son of Tunijallo, Tumenanga ri Gaukanna becomes ruler of Gowa. Akarseng Matoaya, son of Tumenganga ri Makkaoayang, and leader of revolt against Tunipassulu', becomes king of Tallo' and baligau of Gowa.

1593-1637: Karaeng Matoaya as ruler of Tallo' and chancellor of Gowa lays basis of Makassar's success.

Seventeenth Century 1601-1700

1603-06: Makassar converts to Islam. A religious advisory council supplements the traditional one.

1607: The Sultans of Makassar establish a policy of welcoming all foreign traders.

1608-11: Sultan Matoaya (now Abdullah Awal-ul-Islam or Slave of God) wages war against neighbouring rivals Bugis and Bone. These become known as the Islamic Wars, because the Sultan demands no tribute of the conquered states but that they accept Islam.

1613: English factory in Makassar; beginning of English-Dutch hostilities.

1616-21: English attempt to gain soveriegnity in the Moluccas.

From 1620: Expansion of Makassar.

1630-40: VOC becomes convinced the only way to dominate trade in Makassar is by force.

1634: First Dutch blockade of Makassar.

1635-46: First general anti-Dutch revolt in the Moluccas.

1636: Van Diemen's peace treaty with Makassar.

1637: Death of Sultan Matoaya. (Also given as 1636). Karaeng Pattingalloang succeeds his father.

1644: Bone uprising against Gowa. The Battle of Passempe sees Bone defeated and governed by a regent, the head of a Islamic religious council.

1660: Arung Palaka leads Bugis revolt against Makassar.

1660: Expulsion of Portuguese from Makassar at VOC demand, begins its decline.

1663: First Dutch attack on Makassar.

1666-8: Bugis/VOC defeat of Makassar. VOC forces headed by Cornelis Speelman and allied with forces led by Arung Palakka of Bone, bent on revenge for Makassar's subjugation of Bone in 1644. Second and Third Dutch expeditions against Makassar. Final subjugation of Makassar by Speelman and Arung Palakka.

1669: End of Sultanate of Makassar

1672-96: Arung Palakka is king of Bone.