Studying in 2022 means students can choose to return to on-campus and enjoy all that UOW campus life offers or study their course online. Studying from home can be challenging. Here are resources designed to help you succeed in your studies.
Studying in 2022
Online learning support and tools
Students can access a range of resources and assistance to learn online including Library resources, IT tools and wellbeing support that ensure students are able to continue their education at home.UOW student resources for online learning
Get a taste of an online E-Business lecture
See Dr Roba Abbas lecture on the initial module, "Introduction to E-Business" for the E-Business subject "OPS200: Management & Electronic Business" at UOW via online learning.
Hello, my name is Roba Abbas and I'm a lecturer in the School of Management, Operations and marketing at the University of Wollongong. My background is in Information and Communication Technology majoring in Business Information Systems and I'm a member of the Operations discipline. Today I'll be sharing with you some information about our subject Management and Electronic Business by providing you with this initial module which is the introduction to E-Business which is delivered online.
When we tend to discuss E-Business as a concept we initially start off with discussions around E-Commerce and what that entails by way of definition. We can perceive E-Commerce to be the process of buying, selling and exchanging either goods services and information even online or in a digital format. Now if we broaden that definition, we can perceive E-Business to encompass E-Commerce but also to move beyond the scope of E-Commerce to consider customer liaison, collaboration with supply chain and other partners and aspects around e-learning and other types of transactions and innovative E-Commerce or E-Business models for instance.
In terms of our approach from the Operations discipline perspective, when we think of E-Business and E-Commerce we tend to situate these particular concepts within a broader process of transformation. Now this subject sits within a broader suite of subjects that looks at operations management from a systems perspective. So, what this means is how we take inputs within an organizational setting, perform some kind of transformation process and produce outputs that have some inherent value to the end customer. And we do this within a broader environment or environmental context that defines how the particular operation works and provides inputs and necessary information to frame this really important context.
Now I just wanted to take you back to think about the term E-Business and its origins. So, when we think about the term, we can trace this back to the late 90s specifically 1997 with the emergence of the term E-Business by IBM. So, as we can see in this article from the Wall Street Journal IBM, proposed this idea of E-Business as being the next revolution where the internet is concerned. So, this is about the idea of moving away from the simple sharing and dissemination of information and documents online to a process whereby business activities are conducted in a digital format or electronically and this involves those aspects that I spoke about around customer interaction and relationship management. Also, how we broaden the scope of our work online to consider our supply chain and other areas of operation such as logistics and order fulfillment, for example.
So, in this subject we will be looking at E-Business and we'll start off as per this module by looking at the historical context and how things have progressed since. And our focus will also encompass looking at innovative E-Commerce and E-Business applications. So, for the purpose of this subject we might use E-Commerce and E-Business interchangeably and at certain points, at which I'll define these points, we will look at E-Commerce in its narrow sense of the term, in terms of transactions.
Now if you think about IBM's initial definition of E-Business, it's essentially about that process of transformation which is why it's really crucial that we look at E-Business not only from a technical perspective but also from an operations perspective where we're really focused on the transformation of business processes by using internet technology to facilitate this transformation. And as soon as we think about key business processes, we're really operating within the operation space and that transformation process where inputs are converted into outputs that have some value for the end customer.
Now when we think about E-Commerce and so let's look at E-Commerce in a more defined or narrow sense of the term, we can consider E-Commerce to be concerned, as I mentioned, with document transition, transmission over the net um right through to processes of online buying and selling. So, when we think about inputs into our transformation process or the way we deal with, for instance, buying and selling, this isn't solely restricted to the idea of products but can also encompass services and information as we'll see throughout the course of this subject.
Now really important part is to discuss the role of technology, which we'll spend some time doing as part of this subject, as being a facilitator or an enabler of E-Commerce and we'll speak about certain infrastructures that are required and we'll talk about the evolution of the internet as it pertains to E-Business. Now we'll also base our discussion around prominent players in the 90s by looking at companies such as Dell, for example, and their business models and just how revolutionary they were with the advent of the term E-Business. But we'll also progress to the present day where we consider innovative E-Commerce models. So, we'll look at business-to-business models. We'll look at business to consumer models. And we'll also look at the more innovative models around consumer-to-consumer scenarios and also encapsulating the idea of government use of E-Business technologies and models.
So, as part of this process we'll take part in some authentic tasks and exercises. We'll also evaluate the role of existing businesses and try to engage with and think about recent E-Business and E-Commerce and or E-Business success stories and failures. By looking at case studies and real-world examples we'll be able to define the elements that constitute a successful E-Business. We'll take this discussion beyond this basic evaluation to look at design and development of E-Business models and specific websites by way of group presentations and increase interactive exercises throughout the course of the session.
Now in terms of the subject's scope we will first begin by discussing the role of E-Business and E-Commerce. We will then look at the impact across a range of areas and these include looking, for instance, um around the impact of E-Business and E-Commerce on stakeholders, on knowledge management, on management in general, on other areas of business such as marketing and so on. Importantly we'll ground this discussion in the idea of base models and concepts. And what I mean by this is to establish a vocabulary by which we can describe E-Businesses and gain an understanding of what each of these E-Business models that we have defined entails in terms of components. This will form the basis of some design exercises and hands-on exercises where we talk about the transforming of business processes and translating business processes to an online or digital space. As you can see processes is quite key when we're discussing E-Business and E-Commerce models from an operations perspective.
Now throughout the course of the subject we'll be looking at interactive computer labs and how we can engage in a computer lab setting in breakout rooms and by way of interactive exercises in order to understand the subject's scope. We'll also take part in online collaborative exercises and this will involve us partaking in an online collaborative space where we can share ideas and use this as a basis of assessments.
We'll also engage with authentic tasks which allows us to gain real-world understanding of the concepts that have been introduced throughout the course of the subject. And we'll also bring in guest lecturers and cutting edge research to ensure that the theories and the models that we have discussed as part of this subject are applied in firstly in a real world or industry setting but that we are also drawing on recent research to frame our discussions. This results in us having research industry and also a basic understanding of the general landscape of E-Business.
So, I look forward to seeing you next week where we'll start to discuss some of these E-Business models. Thank you.
Experience a online learning tutorial class
Watch a snippet of remote learning tutorial class for MGNT351: Responsible Leadership at UOW. Dr Laura Rook works through the week's tutorial questions with students online leading discussions where students share their ideas and thoughts.
[Dr. Rook:] Okay good afternoon and welcome to this week's online tutorial for Responsible Leadership. So, prior to going through some of the discussion questions for this week, I thought it would be great if I sort of went through a brief overview of some of the previous week's work. So, in week one you were introduced to the subject and you were introduced to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and you were introduced to them as a framework for addressing some of the world's most pressing issues such as poverty, food insecurity and health.
In week two the lecture looked at moral imagination and mental models and the importance of being able to identify and challenge your own mental models. In week three we went through the many different theories on leadership. We looked at some of their benefits as well as some of the disadvantages of those theories. In week four we looked at what is responsible leadership. So, everything responsible leadership including concept, theory and sort of an application of responsible leadership in an organization. And last week we were presented with an overview of Healthy Cities Illawarra from our industry partner, Kelly Andrews and that was so that you could get a greater understanding of Healthy Cities Illawarra for the embedded world project that is in assignment two.
So, this week's topic is very much focused on the two frameworks of responsible leadership. So, that is the responsible leadership for performance and the responsible leadership for relations. I've developed a few guiding questions to start our discussion in this tutorial. So, they are: question 1. Let's start with "can you describe for me in your own words what the two frameworks are"?
[Student 1:] So, for responsible leadership for performance I found that when you first think about performance, the first thing you think of is an organizational profit and I think that that's not necessarily the case. Responsible leadership for performance for me is systems moving towards optimum performance through collective goals and these performances can be indicated through efficiency, productivity, the quality and they can be affected by cultural, political and technology. technological variables.
[Dr. Rook:] Yes. Very good. So, I really liked how you considered that we've kind of gone from a different focus from a shareholder to a state court of view in that you said that we've gone from this sort of profit oriented approach when we're talking about performance and now it's about so much more. Does anyone want to share their view of the responsible leadership for relations framework?
[Student 2:] Um so, I see that framework is more like purely the um relationship that the leadership activity has with all stakeholders of the organization. So, it can be you know employees, it can be within the supply chain, the environment. Your buying communities etc.
[Dr. Rook] Yep. Very good. So that so if we were to compare them you could say the performance is very much about the system and then you're saying that the responsible leadership for relations is very much about the leader and the roles they take on. Very good. So, moving on to question two then: "what are some of the similarities that you can see between the two frameworks?"
[Student 1:] I think that they're very much embedded into each other and that you can't have one without the other. And that in terms of relations, with any type of relations you have in an organization, they, they relate to performance because if an organization has bad relations with their employees then productivity and performance is when to low and vice versa.
[Student 3:] In that both focus on financial performance but I would say they're quite different in their objectives. I mean like both recognize KPIs and performance as important but the... the performance perspective does this quite explicitly whereas the relationship perspective it does this through like accounting for the priorities of the stakeholders which is slightly less explicit. I don't necessarily think they work in tandem quite as well.
[Dr. Rook:] Okay and is that... are you saying that because they have a different focus?
[Student 3:] Yeah, I think they're um... I mean the way they carry out this is different. So, you've got the relations perspective that's all about the leader whereas the performance perspective is all about the system. So, I think by doing it differently even though they aim to achieve like ethical leadership and behaviour I think because they are quite different, the main similarity is that they value financial performance.
[Dr. Rook:] Yeah um I think that Sarah raises a really good point in that um perhaps they can be combined to work together but there are some really sort of inherent differences between the two which you pointed out as well in that one sort of focus on the leader. In one on the system. Nathaniel.
[Student 2:] The way that I saw the two frameworks is that you can have responsible leadership for relations within the responsible leadership for performance system. So, in the process, you can really take on all the qualities of RLR I'm in the process of RLP. But I feel like we've... if you're looking at the performance system inside RLR, you can't really have it there because I think it sort of defeats the purpose of what really RLR is. So, if there were... if you did invent the performance system that pretty much turned into RLP, like say one being more associated with the other. One can't really be as associated. If that makes sense.
[Dr. Rook:] Yeah that makes sense. So, you're saying that some of them may be, the roles that are embedded in the RLR could maybe be described and implemented in the RLP model but not necessarily the other way around.
[Student 2:] Yeah. Exactly.
[Dr. Rook:] Yeah, yeah. Does any ... Yep sorry Riley.
[Student 4:] Okay yeah I was just gonna say that I mean for ah RLP there's those strict rules and I think that RLR doesn't flow / fit in those rules as well as they could and yeah it's the very strict rules that you need to follow and I don't think it would work.
[Dr. Rook:] Because RLR doesn't necessarily have a whole bunch of rules or sort of a system process to follow. Yeah. So, we've kind of really talked about here the similarities and differences which is question two and question three together, which is fine. Holy.
[Student 3:] I think another major difference too is that the RLP places like an emphasis on the entire system, ensuring that like all aspects of the business model are ingrained with a form of ethical leading, whereas the RLR is more top-down and it's like places a greater emphasis on the actions of the leader themselves and the role that they play in precipitating responsible behaviour further down the line. So, like in the RLR the leader is integrated in the web of stakeholder relations and plays the primary agent whereas in RLP the leader is just a part of a larger system.
[Dr. Rook:] Right yeah. Okay that's a good way of looking at it and what you've brought up is actually, you've highlighted a similarity in that both of them very much focus about the interactions. So, whether that's the interactions within a system’s view or whether that's the interactions within a relationships view. So, there is that similarity in terms of acknowledging and appreciating the interactions and how they would then further impact how responsible leadership gets implemented. Okay, what about, so one of the big sort of topics that we've discussed in this subject is the importance of ethics. Is ethics considered in both these models?
[Student 4:] Hey sorry so like in the RLP model the, it's very much focuses on the ethics and the morals of the followers and the constituency and this... just watch the tutorial like everything this morning and it said that without the leader basically has to follow exactly what or take into account what the followers are saying and what they morally think is correct. Otherwise they will judge the leader and what they're doing. So that's important in that case.
[Dr. Rook:] Yeah.
[Student 2:] Yeah, I was going to pretty much say what Riley says: is that the leadership relationship won't work if the leader isn't doing what are perceived is morally correct by the followers.
[Dr. Rook] So, with that being said are there any particular elements of the frameworks that you like?
[Student 5:] I particularly like the stakeholder theory within RLR.
[Dr. Rook:] Okay.
[Student 5:] Like I know for me after kind of learning this I now watch my managers and how the people that I work with and like my bosses kind of approach different topic looks and like how they work. So, I think that's kind of interesting and that's why I kind of like that the most.
[Dr. Rook:] Yes, that's good insight. Yes, Sarah.
[Student 1:] I would agree I think that I'm really drawn to RLR. I feel that it's very much it's, for me, relating to my own work and stuff. It's easier for me to clearly see relationships and how they work and how they communicate and what the impact of not having good relationships has on an organization.
[Dr. Rook:] Yep. Okay very good. It's good that both of you are able to sort of relate that back to where you're sort of currently working to get a greater understanding. Um Satara, what do you think?
[Student 6:] For me it's RLP model and I think that's mainly because it takes more of that system too. So, I know I mentioned in one of the other tutorials that I was really enjoying learning about like the systems too and mental models and things like that and for me as well. Like I'm able to put that into back my work as well at the moment I think that's probably why I relate to that more than RLR at the moment… that's a bit of a tongue twister.
[Dr. Rook:] Yeah
[Student 6:] But yeah I really enjoy so just like that whole system's approach with the RLP model.
[Dr. Rook:] Okay. Would anyone else like to share their view.
[Student 3:] Yeah, I like the RLP in theory. Like I like how it says systems you it's like fully integrative from kind of the bottom up. But I think practically the RLR is better in terms of actual... like you can actually implement it in a business much easier through current... like hiring whereas to kind of entire organizational structure from the beginning would be quite difficult.
[Dr. Rook:] Yes, so to change a system or implement a new system is going to be a lot harder than it is to sort of bring in a leader and have them consider about the different roles they develop. So, yes change is never easy and particularly if you're going to change an entire system that I would agree that that would be a lot more difficult. Ok so reflecting on previous content that we've gone through in the past weeks and particular maybe around this discussion about ethics and morals, how would you ensure that your values and views about what it means to be moral can be sustained when you're faced with sort of a crisis situation or a moral dilemma?
[Student 1:] Well in the reading the Pless 2007 reading the definition I had was value-based and there are ethical principle driven relationships between leaders and stakeholders who were connected through a shared sense of meaning and purpose and to me I felt as if that was implying that there should be systems in place because you're on a mutual agreement and you have mutual trust and accountability that there should be... but those steps and will come into place before the crisis happens. So, that there's... there's a mutual sense of meaning and purpose between the leader and the follower and it creates an understanding that when the crisis happens there's no ethical like dilemma or conflict.
[Student 7:] Yeah for me I think in crisis situations it's really easy for someone to lose track of what they wanted to do when they started off. So, I think for me I'd need to constantly self-evaluate but also get an objective evaluation or opinion from someone like... someone other than myself so I can see what I think but also have how they think I'm going so that way I kind of don't lose track of what I wanted to achieve at the beginning and being moral which can quite easily get lost especially when there's you know a really stressful across the situation.
[Dr. Rook] Okay yeah that's a good answer. Holly you were gonna say something?
[Student 3:] Yeah just was gonna agree with Georgia. I think it's really important to have a strong ethical framework for the organization set up before crisis... crises happen because I think it's so easy in the midst of a crises to lose sight of what's really important and just focus on like short-term resolution. So, by having kind of procedure, things like external auditing and internal auditing and implementing things like moral imagination kind of explicitly outlined from the beginning as soon as a crisis happens, we can resort to those options as opposed to floundering and trying to complete put together a short-term solution.
[Dr. Rook:] Yeah and I really liked what Georgia was saying about like self-awareness and self-reflection which is what we've been talking about in terms of our competencies for responsible leadership and that's one of them. Is to make sure that we sort of self-reflect. We're more aware about our actions and our values and how they guide our actions. But also, in terms of our mental models and... and sort of how we view the world doesn't mean everyone else views the world in that same way. So, by considering other people's perspectives and sort of taking a multi perspective approach, you're more able to sort of ensure and understand what that shared meaning is, going back to what Sarah said. So, I think that's really good responses. Michelle, you look like you wanted to say something.
[Student 5:] I also feel like I agree with both of them and I feel like that relates to the RLP in terms of I feel like you should, as an organization, have like... prepared like what scenarios and stuff like that for crisis just like you would with fire training like evacuations, have like a process in place where you or the board kind of come up with different scenarios that you could be faced with in order to practice for when you're actually in that situation.
[Dr. Rook:] Yeah. So, you've actually just highlighted, maybe something you've talked about in a prep another subject, about scenario planning. In order to sort of come up with different scenarios the organization might be faced with and how you might go about finding a solution in getting through that crisis. Another good point. Thank you all for coming. Thank you all for coming. I really appreciate it and I'll speak to you next week.
[Student 1:] Thank you.