The Pioneer Kerosene Works

at American Creek, Mount Kembla, New South Wales

1865 - 1878

Chronology

pre 1865

1839: Crew of the HMS Beagle discover bituminous material in a water well near the tidal reaches of the Victoria river, in the Bonaparte Gulf sedimentary basin of northern Australia.

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1849: Reverend W.B. Clarke selects specimens of oil bearing shales or carbonaceous deposits from behind Mount Kembla (refer under 10 May 1865). Illawarra's first coal mine opened on James Shoobert's property at Mount Keira.

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1850: Scotsman John Young patents an oil shale refining process.

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1854: Benjamin Fawcett and Patrick Lahiff open the Mount Pleasant coal mine, to the north of Mount Kembla (refer Old Pioneer, 1989, p.3). Fawcett later erects a gas works in Wollongong and tests the gas producing qualities of the Mount Kembla oil shale shortly after its discovery in 1865.

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April 1857: William Stanley Jevons, assayer at the Sydney Mint, visits Cordeaux (located behind Mount Kembla, and to the north-west) in search of a 'Black Lead' deposit. In his journal Jevons notes that all he found was carbonaceous shale (Illawarra Historical Society Bulletin, 1978).

1857: Arthur Cousins states that traces of kerosene shale were found on the mountainside during this year (Garden of New South Wales, 1947, pp.181-183).

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27 August 1859: Edwin L. Drake strikes oil in a 65 ft well at Titusville, western Pennsylvania.

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December 1859: Melbourne imports 1012g colza, 1765g sperm oil, and 14269g black whale oil.

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c1861: Benjamin Fawcett claims to have discovered oil bearing shale at Mount Kembla about this time, but he did not follow it up as he was not certain that it contained kerosene (Illawarra Mercury, 24 March 1865; Reminiscences of Old Pioneer, 1989, p.5).

American Kerosene retails for 7/- per gallon in New South Wales.

June 1861: Melbourne imports 300g colza, 4655g black whale oil, and 6052g kerosene.

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mid 1862: American Kerosene retails 4/6 per gallon in New South Wales.

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11 September 1863: (Illawarra Mercury) William Graham's 150 acre farm at American Creek, near Mount Kembla, is offered 'to let'. Oil shale was later found on this property.

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 1865

February 1865: Saul Samuel and R.J. Want visit the Sydney office of William Graham, of Graham & Mulholland, Commission Agents, and show him a phial of crude kerosene oil produced from shale found on his property at Mount Kembla. Graham apparently had no knowledge of the oil shale deposit prior to the visit of these gentlemen. Whilst Messrs. Samuel & Want initially wished to work the site, they turned their attention to the richer deposits then known to exist at Hartley, leaving Graham to exploit the shale according to his own wishes (A.P. Fleming, 1967, p.4).

1 March 1865: (Bathurst Free Press) Report on the 'discovery' of oil shale at Hartley, though samples had been known from that locality since the 1820s (Carne, 1903, p.185).

17 March 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) First public report on the discovery of oil shale at Mount Kembla, including details of the visit to Illawarra of Messrs. Venard and Wilson (the latter an oil producer from Sydney) to investigate the material early in March. It was stated at this time that 2lbs of Illawarra oil shale produced 1 gallon of oil.

21 March 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Notice re public meeting to be held that day at Wollongong to form an Oil Shale Committee to mine the local kerosene deposits and test the shale; also reported that Mr Fawcett is able to test the shale in Wollongong.

24 March 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on first meeting of the Oil Shale Committee and their plans to have the local shale tested. Benjamin Fawcett states he discovered the mineral 'four years ago' (i.e. c1861). The newspaper also contains an article on the Tasmanite oil shale and the action of oil wells. The members of the Oil Shale Committee visit Mount Kembla in search of the oil shale on this day, and arrange to have samples brought to Wollongong.

28 March 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) William Graham, owner of the shale bearing property at Mount Kembla, agrees to test the shale at his own cost.

30 March 1865: A sample of the Mount Kembla shale is shipped to Sydney for analysis.

31 March 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on the shipment of Mount Kembla shale sample to Sydney for analysis.

1 April 1865: (Illawarra Express) Report that about 1 ton of shale had been shipped to Sydney for testing (see also Sydney Mail 8 April 1865).

11 April 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Results of the analysis of the Mount Kembla oil shale sample sent to Sydney are published, the work having been carried out by analytical chemist Charles Watt. Notice is also given re the meeting of local Oil Shale Committee to be held that day.

14 April 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on the quality of Mount Kembla oil shale and meeting of Oil Shale Committee on the 11th.

21 April 1865: (Sydney Morning Herald, p.6) Report on 'Kerosene at Wollongong'.

25 April 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Letter from Edward Wilson, a refiner of Sydney, re difficulties of refining oil shale and low profit margins.

29 April 1865: (Sydney Morning Herald) Report on Hartley oil shale and a public distillation test in Sydney.

2 May 1865: (Sydney Morning Herald) Letter to editor re fears of a mineral 'rush' at Hartley, similar to the goldrushes of the early 1850s.

2 May 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Notice re meeting of Oil Shale Committee at Wollongong; also comparison of Hartley and Illawarra oil shales.

3 May 1865: (Sydney Morning Herald) Letter from E.G. Wilson re his 'discovery' of the oil shale at Hartley.

3 May 1865: (Freemans Journal) Report on Wollongong oil shale.

5 May 1865: (Sydney Morning Herald) Letter from Mr Saul Samuel re his involvement in the Hartley oil shale discovery, plus a denial of the E.G. Wilson allegations by Mr Watt.

5 May 1865: (Sydney Morning Herald) Letter from the Reverend W.B. Clarke claiming discovery of oil shale in situ at Hartley and other localities many years ago.

9 May 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Story on the products of Hartley oil shale.

10 May 1865: In a paper entitled 'The Transmutation of Rocks' delivered to the Philosophical Society of New South Wales on this date, geologist the Reverend W.B. Clarke refers to collecting oil shales at Mount Kembla in 1849 (Transactions of the Philosophy Society of N.S.W., Sydney, 1866, p.283).

12 May 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on oil shale at Stoney Creek, Maitland.

16 May 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on preparations for mining and retorting the Mount Kembla oil shale. Note re further discovery of oil shale on Mr Jekyll's land at Mount Kembla.

19 May 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report that Mr Jekyll's sample is not cannal coal.

9 June 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) A Sydney businessman offers to refine Illawarra oil shale in Sydney.

16 June 1865: (Illustrated Sydney News) Story on oil bearing deposits near Wollongong, plus engraved view.

20 June 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Letter to the editor calling for a geologist to survey the mineral wealth of Illawarra.

23 June 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Letter to the editor commenting on a scheme to pay for a geological survey of Illawarra.

27 June 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on works beginning and first adits dug at the Mount Kembla oil shale mine.

27 June 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Tenders called for quarrymen and the construction of chimneys and a bridge over American Creek, Mount Kembla.

1 July 1865: (Freemans Journal) Report on Wollongong oil shale.

4 July 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report that contracts have been let for the erection of a chimney, retorts, etc. at the Mount Kembla oil shale mine.

8 July 1865: (Freeman's Journal) Report on Wollongong oil shale.

21 July 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report that numerous 'finds' of oil shale have been reported in Illawarra.

mid July 1865: Operations commence at the Mount Kembla oil shale mine, with two 8 foot adits driven.

11 August 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on the first accident at Mount Kembla mine during the construction of the bridge across American Creek.

18 August 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Copy of letter from W. de Salis to the English geologist Sir Roderick Murchison seeking information on mining oil shale and petroleum.

26 August 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Report of Benjamin Fawcett test of Mount Kembla oil shale for gas. Results: 20lbs oil shale -> 145 ft gas. i.e. 16210 cu ft/ton.

13 October 1865: (Illawarra Mercury) Description of the Pioneer Kerosene Works at American Creek, Mount Kembla. An American oil refiner, W.J. Hammil, is noted as the first manager, and Robert Longmore is in charge of erecting the plant at a cost of 4000.

October 1865: Entry for Balliere's Gazetteer of 1866 compiled re the Pioneer Kerosene Works.

5 December 1865: First kerosene from the Pioneer works at Mount Kembla is brought to Wollongong.

16 December 1865: (Sydney Mail) Report on first local production of kerosene at Illawarra; also notice of continuing investigations at Hartley.

16 December 1865: (Sydney Morning Herald) Report on first local kerosene production at Illawarra.

16 December 1865: (Freeman's Journal) Report of first oil produced at Mount Kembla and shipped to Wollongong; plus note that the local establishments are using the oil.

1865: Production data available for Pioneer Kerosene Works.

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1866

3 January 1866: (Sydney Mail) Report on quality of the Pioneer Kerosene Works oil.

11 January 1866: (Kiama Independent) Review of Pioneer oil.

30 January 1866: (Illawarra Mercury) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

8 February 1866: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

8 March 1866: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

19 March 1866: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

11 April 1866: Reverend W.B. Clarke describes American Creek and Mount Kembla oil shales in his paper 'On the Occurrence and Geological Position of Oil-bearing Deposits in New South Wales', Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, Volume XXII.

12 April 1866: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

25 May 1866: (Illawarra Mercury) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

6 June 1866: (Sydney Mail) Report on first shipment of Hartley kerosene sold in Sydney.

18 June 1866: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

6 July 1866: (Mining Journal, London) W. McKenzie article on 'Kerosene Shale Deposits of New South Wales'.

31 July 1866: (Sydney Morning Herald, p.3) Report on Hartley Kerosene and Paraffine Company.

22 August 1866: (Illawarra Mercury) Statement that Bellambi coal also produces oil; criticism of Mr McKenzie, Examiner of New South Wales Coalfields, re his involvement in oil shale mines.

1 September 1866: (Illawarra Mercury) Mr McKenzie resigns following criticism.

27 September 1866: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

13 December 1866: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene, plus review.

1866: Balliere's Gazette says the American Creek Shale deposits had been known for about 12 years, i.e. since 1854.

1866: Production data of Pioneer Kerosene Works.

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1867

30 January 1867: (Sydney Morning Herald) Reverend W.B. Clarke's paper 'On the Occurrence and Geological Position of Oil-bearing Deposits in New South Wales', extracted from the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, is published locally.

7 February 1867: (Sydney Morning Herald) Letter to the editor from the Reverend W.B. Clarke commenting on his oil shale paper.

7 February 1867: (Sydney Morning Herald) Letter to the editor from W. Graham, manager of Pioneer Kerosene Works, commenting on the Reverend Clarke's oil shale paper and its relation to the Mount Kembla deposit.

27 February 1867: (Sydney Morning Herald) W. McKenzie's article on 'Kerosene Shale Deposits of New South Wales', extracted from the British Mining Journal, is published locally.

12, 18 April 1867: (Illawarra Mercury) Tenders called for work at Pioneer Kerosene Works.

4 June 1867: Sample of Pioneer Kerosene is sent to Government House and receives favourable comment.

July 1867: 'Papers on Petroleum', New South Wales Legislative Assembly Votes and Proceedings, volume 15, pp.1081-1102.

20 August 1867: (Illawarra Mercury) Advertisement and notice that Pioneer oil won a first prize medal at the Melbourne Intercolonial Exhibition.

20 November 1867: (Bathurst Times) Report on the production of 'Cannelite Oil' from the Marangaroo oil shale deposit near Lithgow.

1867: Samples of Pioneer oil shale win a silver medal at the International Exhibition, Paris. Refer Catalogue of the Paris Exhibition, N.S.W. Exhibits, 1867, p.82.

1867: Production data of Pioneer Kerosene Works.

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1868

16 April 1868: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

12, 19 September 1868: (The Sydney Mail) Description and history of kerosene production in New South Wales.

19 September 1868: (The Sydney Mail) Description of Pioneer kerosene plant and refining process.

31 December 1868: (Sydney Morning Herald) Report that Hartley oil shale is being marketed as Comet Oil, after being refined at the recently completed retorting works on Botany Road, Waterloo.

1868: Production data of Pioneer Kerosene Works. 10 employees.

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1869

25 May 1869: (Illawarra Mercury) Notice of new agent appointed to Pioneer Kerosene Works, and mention of recent fire.

22 October 1869: (Illawarra Mercury) Notice of Drayman wanted for Pioneer Kerosene Works.

1869: Professor Silliman's article on the oil shale mineral termed 'Wollongongite' is published in the American Journal of Science and Arts (volume xlviii, part 2). The actual oil shale sample tested was not from the Pioneer works near Wollongong, but from Hartley.

1869: Production data for Pioneer Kerosene Works.

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1870

11 January 1870: (Illawarra Mercury) Advertisement for Pioneer oil; Edward Graham manager and R. Parsons local agent.

20 January 1870: (Kiama Independent) Advertisement re sale of Pioneer kerosene.

25 January 1870: (Sydney Morning Herald) Report on operations of the Botany Road, Waterloo, retorting works.

5 March 1870: (Sydney Morning Herald) Letter to the editor from the Reverend W.B. Clarke noting that 'Wollongongite' is actually a sample of oil shale from Hartley.

15 October 1870: (Town and Country Journal) Report on Pioneer Kerosene Works and operations.

1870: Board of Albert Memorial Hospital, Wollongong, resolve to use only local Pioneer oil.

1870: No production data for Pioneer Kerosene Works.

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1871

26 August 1871: (Town and Country Journal) Description of Pioneer Kerosene Works.

30 September 1871: (Illustrated Sydney News) Description of area near American Creek and Pioneer Kerosene Works, plus an engraving of bridge over American Creek to the mine.

28 October 1871: (Illustrated Sydney News) Description of Pioneer Kerosene Works, plus an engraving.

1871: Production data of Pioneer Kerosene Works.

Industrial Progress of New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1871, p.449. Article by William Mackenzie describes production and seam at Pioneer Kerosene Works.

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1872

30 March 1872: (Sydney Mail) Report on shale mine at Murrurundi, in the Hunter district.

30 March 1872: (Sydney Mail) Description of Botany Road, Waterloo, shale refinery which uses Hartley shale.

3 May 1872: (Illawarra Mercury) Advertisement for Pioneer Kerosene, plus description of other products.

25 May 1872: (Sydney Mail) Description of Pioneer Kerosene Works.

20 September 1872: (Sydney Mail)

20, 24, 30 September 1872: (Illawarra Mercury) Prospectus published for 'The Sun Kerosene and Oil Shale Company, Wollongong', along with a description of plant.

1872: Judge Alfred Mcfarlane's Illawarra and Monaro describes the Pioneer kerosene works.

1872: Production data for Pioneer Kerosene Works.

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1873

18 January 1873: (The Illustrated Sydney News) Description of Pioneer Kerosene Works plant and refining process, plus engraved view of works looking northwards.

21 March 1873: (Illawarra Mercury)

14 October 1873: (Illawarra Mercury) Statistics on coal and oil shale production in Illawarra.

2 December 1873: Plan of Mount Kembla oil shale mine workings.

1873: Production data for Pioneer Kerosene Works.

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1874

early 1874: Oil shale being mined at Joadja.

23 January 1874: (Illawarra Mercury) Tenders called for 1500 bricks and stone dressing for new retorts at Mount Kembla mine.

c.July 1874: John Graham sells interest in Pioneer (Sun) Oil Shale Company to Mount Kembla Coal and Oil Company for 10000. New owners include Sir George Wigram Allen and Ebenezer Vickery.

18 August 1874: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on banquet given for John Graham by employees upon his enforced retirement as manager of Mount Kembla kerosene mine.

11 September 1874: (Illawarra Mercury) Tender called for 20 men to operate the Mount Kembla kerosene works.

8 December 1874: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on fire at Mount Kembla works.

1874: Production data for Mount Kembla kerosene works.

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1875

21 January 1875: (Illawarra Mercury)

4 April 1875: (Illawarra Mercury) Last advertisement for sale of Mount Kembla kerosene.

28 May 1875: (Illawarra Mercury) Notice re 'Pioneer' steamer.

13 August 1875: (Town and Country Journal) Report that John Graham, ex of Pioneer Kerosene Works, had sold his Sydney business interests.

19 October 1875: (Illawarra Mercury) Wages dispute at Mount Kembla coal and shale mine.

1875: Operations suspended at Mount Keira kerosene works - resumed late in 1876.

1875: No production data for Mount Kembla kerosene works. 35 employees.

Mine and Mineral Statistics of New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1875, p.250. Includes a geological section of the Mount Kembla oil shale workings as sampled by R.W. Moody.

Statistical Register of New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1875. Includes production details for New South Wales shale mines.

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1876

29 February 1876: (Illawarra Mercury) Description of Mount Kembla kerosene works.

8 & 12 December 1876: (Illawarra Mercury) Report that work is to recommence upon the plant at Mount Kembla kerosene works.

Annual Report of the Department of Mines, New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1876, p.133. J. McKenzie reports on the lack of production at the Mount Kembla kerosene works during 1876 and plans to re-open.

1876: No production data for Mount Kembla kerosene works. 45 employees.

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1877

early 1877: Edward Graham sacked, and J.M. Fell becomes manager of Mount Kembla kerosene works. Graham later given a testimonial banquet.

12 January 1877: (Illawarra Mercury) Tender called for brick making at Mount Kembla kerosene works.

18 January 1877: (Illawarra Mercury)

3 April 1877: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on accident at Mount Kembla kerosene works.

1 May 1877: (Illawarra Mercury) Andrew Armstrong appointed Illawarra agent for Mount Kembla 'Star' kerosene and other oils.

22 May 1877: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on banquet given for Edward Graham, ex-manager of Mount Kembla kerosene works.

1 June 1877: Andrew Armstrong, Wollongong agent for Star kerosene, writes a letter to J. Weston of the Kiama Independent re sales of Sun kerosene oil to the Kiama district.

4 July 1877: Picnic held at American Creek Picnic Ground.

10 July 1877: (Illawarra Mercury) A.M. Fell, manager, of Mount Kembla kerosene works.

10 August 1877: (Illawarra Mercury) Report on fire at the Mount Kembla kerosene works.

Annual Report of the Department of Mines, New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1877. Lists 12 employees at the Mount Kembla kerosene works.

1877: Production data for Mount Kembla Kerosene Works. 15 employees. Wages bill 300 per month.

Statistical Register of New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1877. Contains production data for New South Wales shale mines.

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1878

28 June 1878: (Illawarra Mercury) 'Kerosene team' of horses from Mount Kembla mine offered for sale.

2 July 1878: (Illawarra Mercury) Andrew Armstrong appears in the Central Illawarra Appeal Court and announces the Mount Kembla oil shale deposit is nearly exhausted and the works will close soon.

20 December 1878: (Illawarra Mercury) Mount Kembla kerosene company sells its store at Belmore Basin, Wollongong, and calls in final accounts.

24 December 1878: (Illawarra Mercury)

31 December 1878: (Illawarra Mercury) Notice re English company to mine coal at Mount Kembla.

December 1878: English Company formed to work the property of the late Kerosene Company.

1878: Production data for Mount Kembla kerosene works. 30 employees.

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1879

22 October 1879: (Illawarra Mercury)

Annual Report of the Department of Mines, New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1879. Lists 30 employees at the Mount Kembla kerosene works during 1878.

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1880

19 February 1880: (Wollongong Argus) Mount Kembla coal mine opens under new management - called Mount Kembla Coal and Oil Co. Ltd.

Annual Report of the Department of Mines, New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1880. Lists 36 employees at the Mount Kembla coal and oil mine.

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post 1880

March 1881: Railway Bill assented to - authorises construction of a railway line from Mount Kembla to Port Kembla.

February 1883: Mount Kembla coal mine producing 1000 tons a week.

1887: Mineral Products of New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, p.185. Report by William McKenzie describes Mount Kembla oil shale and coal seams.

1901: E.F. Pittman, The Mineral Resources of New South Wales, Geological Survey of N.S.W., Sydney, pp.358-367. Contains table of New South Wales oil shale production.

31 July 1902: Mount Kembla coal mine disaster.

1903: J.E. Carne, The Kerosene Shale Deposits of N.S.W., Memoirs of the Geological Survey of New South Wales, No.3, Government Printer, Sydney. Contains a detailed description and history of Australian oil shales, plus an analysis of oil shale from old working tips at Mount Kembla.

20 December 1910: (Illawarra Mercury) John Graham, aged 82, comments on the output of the Mount Kembla kerosene works and reminisces.

8 July 1913: Mount Kembla Collieries Ltd. formed.

1923-25: 'Reminiscences of Illawarra by Old Pioneer', published in the Illawarra Mercury, mentions the foundation and operation of the Mount Kembla oil shale works.

1928: M. Morrison, 'Oil Shale', Mineral Industry of New South Wales, pp.345-360.

1 December 1933: (South Coast Times) Report on moves to re-open the Mount Kembla oil shale industry following two years of investigation.

29 June 1934: (Illawarra Mercury) 'Old Pioneer' article on the late W.J. Hammil and family.

31 August 1941: Australian Iron and Steel Pty. Ltd. (AI&S) acquires Mount Kembla Collieries.

1942: A Port Kembla syndicate secures rights to the old shale mine at Mount Kembla, with a view to re-opening the works due to war-time shortages of oil and petrol.

1943: James Jervis, Illawarra: A Centenary of History, pp.296-7.

16 August 1944: Depart of Mines letter re Mount Kembla oil shale (Fleming Papers, Wollongong City Library).

1 July 1946: Nebo mine developed directly above old shale workings at Mount Kembla.

30 May 1947: (Illawarra Mercury) Article by Arthur Cousins on the old kerosene works at American Creek.

1950: N.M. Raphael & J.D. Saxby, Australian Oil Shale Deposits: A Review, Investigation Report Number 134, CSIRO Institute of Earth Sciences.

1954: E.J. Kenny, American Creek, Mount Kembla Oil Shale, Geological Report of the Department of Mines, New South Wales, 1939-45, p.116.

1958: Illawarra Historical Society Bulletin, quote from 1873 Mercury re kerosene works.

25 March 1961: (Illawarra Mercury) Story on history of American Creek area.

1963: Illawarra Historical Society Bulletin, quote from 1867 Mercury re kerosene works.

1966: A.P. Fleming description of location of kerosene works site (Fleming Papers, Wollongong City Library).

1967: A.P.Fleming, The Pioneer Kerosene Works, Illawarra Historical Society, Wollongong.

1967: Illawarra Historical Society Bulletin, review of A.P. Fleming's book on the Pioneer Kerosene Works.

1974: K.C. Stone, A Profile History of Mount Kembla, pp.13-14 on kerosene works.

1974: S.R. Lishmund, 'Oil Shale,' The Mineral Industry of New South Wales, no 30, pp.51-52.

24 May 1984: (Illawarra Mercury) Historical article on old kerosene works, plus picture.

1985: Illawarra Historical Society Bulletin, September, story on W.H. Hammil, first manager of Pioneer Kerosene Works.

1986: Illawarra Historical Society Bulletin, April, article on W.H. Hammil and his family history.

1986: J.F. Doyle & A.C. Hutton, 'The Mt. Kembla Oil Shale - A Reappraisal', Advances in the Study of the Sydney Basin, 20th Symposium Proceedings, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, pp.83-87. This article looks at the geology and history of the Mount Kembla oil shale deposit.

1989: Old Pioneer's Reminiscences of Illawarra, Illawarra Historical Publications, Woonona.

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