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Hochstetter I | Blanche Mitchell Diary | Minnie Mann Diary | Hochstetter II | FitzRoy Dock | Scherzer in Sydney
Frauenfeld Diary | Incident at Sikyana | Sydney Chronology | Appendicies
| Lissa 1866 | Ferdinand Maximillian

"On unlocking a time-warp"

The "Novara" in Sydney November - December 1858

John Fletcher

{The following article by the late John Fletcher was originally published in W. Boyd Rayward (ed.), Australian Library History in Context: Papers for the Third Forum on Australian Library History, University of New South Wales, 17 and 18 July 1987, School of Librarianship, University of New South Wales, 1988, 7-25. Fletcher was the one of the first Australain researchers to unlock some of the mysteries surrounding the visit of the Novara to Australia in 1858. His article is prefaced with a short chronology of the Novara}

A Novara Chronology

1843: The Imperial and Royal Austrian Frigate Novara first laid down in Venice, as the Minerva.

1848: Construction continued by the Venetians, as the Italia.

1849: 23 March: The Austrian Field-Marshall Joseph, Count Radetzky (1766-1858) defeats the Piedmontese under King Carlo Alberto at the battle of Novara. The ship, still under construction, is rechristened the Novara.

1850: The Novara is launched - 44 guns, three masts, length 65 metres, weight 2107 Austrian tonnes (2630 English tons), complement 403, home port Trieste.

1851: Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (1832-67) sails on the Novara as a fledgling naval officer.

1857-9: The Novara undertakes a circumnavigation of the globe. Ports of call are: Gibraltar, Madeira, Rio de Janeiro, Cape of Good Hope, islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam, Ceylon, Madras, Nicobar Islands, Singapore, Java, Manila, Hong Kong, Shanghai, island of Ponape, Stewart Island, Sydney, Auckland, Tahiti, Valparaiso, Gibraltar. Accompanied by the Carolina as far as South America.

1861: Auxiliary steam engine added, stem lengthened.

1864: 28 May: Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife (1857) Charlotte (1840-1927) arrive on the Novara at Vera Cruz, as Emperor and Empress of Mexico.

1866: 20 July: The Novara is one of the 27 Austrian warships under Wilhelm von Tegetthoff which defeat the Italian fleet at the battle of Lissa.

1867: The Novara brings back to Austria the body of Ferdinand Maximilian, executed by firing-squad at Queretaro on 19 June 1867.

Introduction

The full story of the Novara's visit to Sydney has yet to be put together, has yet to be told. It is a story that no historian, professional, amateur or local, has tackled. Perhaps in fact the story should be told rather by a novelist. We have the heroine, a somewhat wooden figure admittedly, but one who exerts a spell on flesh and blood handmaidens who are drawn into her circle. We have her admirers, sailors no less, vivacious Austrians and volatile Italians, from illiterate deck-hand to polished Viennese aristocrat, who spend years of prime manhood in her service. Her retinue includes scientists, naturalists and scholars, and to her side, in Sydney, flock hundreds of her compatriots, public figures and longing citizens. All are in her thrall, and this against the breath-taking brilliance and swarming waters of an as yet unspoiled Sydney harbour.

Where historian and novelist have yet to tread, where the plot runs true and sub-plots abound, here indeed are rich pickings. What I have done, in this first harvest, is to condense the various eye-witness accounts I have so far gleaned - official and informal, scientific and social, in newspapers and in diaries, in print and in manuscript - of the Novara's stay in Sydney. These accounts overlap, complement, sometimes contradict. They show where further research is needed, betray individual facets of occasional brilliance, reveal personal or emotional depths and obtuse superficiality.

What the Novara Papers will eventually turn into, I do not know: a chronicle, a dossier, a documented tapestry à la Walter Lord's A night to remember, a coffee-table quarto of gloss and glitter? But these questions lie in the future. It is the past that concerns us now. It is time to start telling the Sydney chapter of the story of the Novara.

The Story and its Major Sources

At half past five on the evening of Friday, 5 November 1858, the Imperial and Royal Austrian warship Novara glided to a sandy-bottomed anchorage, in eight fathoms of water in Palmer's Cove, off Garden Island. Her voyage had begun on 30 April 1857, and another nine months were to pass before the eleven officers and 334 crew returned, on 26 August 1859, to a hero's welcome in Trieste, with much subsequent fêting in Vienna.

Manned by "an illustrious lot of officers", as one very interested 15 year old Sydney observer put it, and under the overall command of Bernhard von Wüllerstorf-Urbair (1816-83) - a difficult name not surprisingly mangled by the Sydney Morning Herald of 6 November 1858, into one B. Willerstoff-Noleair - the Novara had originally planned to stay in Sydney some eleven days. An opportunity was found however for the ship, the largest man-of-war ever to visit Port Jackson, to enter the newly commissioned dry dock on Cockatoo Island, and the Sydney stay was extended until Tuesday, 7 December 1858.

The Novara was "prosecuting a scientific voyage around the world" (SMH, 6 November 1858) and carried amongst her complement of 352 a "scientific Commission" of seven men. Amongst these were the geologist F. Hochstetter, the zoologist G. Frauenfeld and the artist J. Selleny. As ethnologist and official historiographer to the voyage, the Austrian Finance Minister K.L. von Bruck (1798-1860) and the Supreme Commander of the Austrian navy, Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, had chosen Karl Scherzer (1821-1903).

It was in many ways a surprising choice. A printer by trade, the youthful Scherzer had incurred official displeasure in the fateful year of 1848, when, in Vienna, he founded the Gutenberg-Verein, an early forerunner of the modem printing unions. By way of apparent atonement, his virtual exile (1852-55) was spent in North and Central America in close collaboration with the zoologist M. Wagner (1813-87). As it turned out, the official three-volume account (Reise) of the Novara's circumnavigation of the world, by Karl von Scherzer (he was ennobled on 1 February 1860) proved to be one of the nineteenth century's top German bestsellers, exceeded in its sales and impact only by Alexander von Humboldt's Kosmos. It was, incidentally, under Humboldt's benign patronage that the Novara expedition took place.

After a close encounter with a typhoon in the South China Sea, the Novara had experienced heavy weather - bouts of contrary wind and alternating calm - during her 83 day voyage from Shanghai. She was also taking in water. Her arrival off the Sydney Heads at noon on that first Friday was no small tribute to her course-keeping officers. No sooner had the Novara moored on that calm November evening than:

...every member of the crew received sent on board a copy of the issue of the 6 November 1858 of the German 'Australian Newspaper' edited by a native of Graz called Degotardi and filled with accounts of the Novara (Reise, III 4).

There are probably to this day copies of this issue still extant in various Viennese households. I have yet to locate a copy, but liberal extracts from this and following issues of the Australische Deutsche Zeitung were quoted by the Novara's geologist and natural scientist F. Hochstetter, in a series of articles covering the voyage, commissioned by the Wiener Zeitung. Hochstetter records how the issue of 6 November 1858 called for a "General Meeting of all Germans to discuss and advise on how best to celebrate the Novara's presence". He notes too from the editorial:

The mighty thunder of your cannons will arouse in many a German breast its slumbering love for the Fatherland, just as the engaging picture of your closely united crew will inspire anew amongst the Germans of this city the impetus towards a united presence here.

John Degotardi's words were subsequently to find a further readership in Vienna and Austria. In February 1859, Alois Auer could write to him from Vienna: "Your report on the arrival of the Novara has found many appreciative readers here and has been frequently reprinted."

Whilst the officers and scientists on board the Novara were deluged throughout by invitations from Social Sydney, the German community's official welcome took place only after the Novara had been warped back to her Garden Island anchorage from the Government dry dock, on Tuesday, 23 November, some two and a half weeks after arriving in Port Jackson. On the following day, at eight thirty in the evening, the German Club and German Choir organised an ambitious "Serenade", which "custom, peculiar to the Germans, of pouring forth their congratulations in song, is a very pleasing one."

The musical homage culminated in the presentation on board of an Address of Welcome, elegantly bound, inscribed on parchment to Commodore Wüllerstorf-Urbair. It was stridently declaimed on the spot by the printer F. Gelbrecht and great play was made with the names of Ludwig Leichhardt and Alexander von Humboldt.

The evening, after a day which saw the mercury soar to 109, was virtually ruined by a southerly change ("ein 'Brickfielder'") and the planned illumination of the steamer Washington, generously made available at no cost by MM. Mitchell and Co. and brimming with 300 excited ticket-holders, could not take place. Hochstetter describes the event in Degotardi's eloquently waxing words. Rockets, Bengal fire, the competing medleys of the local German band and the seven-man music corps on board the Novara, a near fatal collision on the harbour, and the national anthems, brought the evening to a raucous close, although for the flushed Sydney Germans, Austrians and Swiss, festivities continued apace at Parker's Family Hotel.

On Thursday, 25 November 1858, the German Club entertained the officers and scientists of the Novara at a dinner - with innumerable toasts - in their Wynyard Square premises. On the Saturday, by way of ecstatic coincidence, news was released in Sydney of the birth (on 21 August 1858) of Crown Prince Rudolf, who was in the January of 1889 to perish so wretchedly at Mayerling. That morning, again at noon, again at dusk, the Novara's cannon reverberated around Sydney and its harbour in a 21-gun salute, which was echoed at midday by the beflagged English frigates Iris and Victoria. The same morning a solemn "Te Deum" was sung on board the Novara.

The climax of the Novara's visit to Sydney was reached on Tuesday, 30 November, when a ball, with 300 guests, "the elite of Sydney, the most magnificent celebration of the entire voyage" was held on the heavily disguised warship. On this occasion the Novara's musicians were reinforced by the Band of the 12th Regiment (SMH, 30 November 1858). Postponed from the Monday because of heavy rain, the ball was marred by yet more rain, which began to fall at nine o'clock, daunting amongst others Sir Daniel and Lady Cooper from crossing over on the steamer specially hired, at eighteen pounds, for the night. Again, Hochstetter lets Degotardi take up his pen.

Whilst musing, shortly before their departure from "this Capua of the South", on the Novara-fever to which Sydney had so quickly succumbed, with thunderous applause in theatres, Novara-croissants, even Novara-sausages, Hochstetter again turns to Degotardi. The occasion, on Monday, 22 November, was a concert given by the Sydney Philharmonic Society in the Great Hall of the Sydney Exchange. According to the report in the Australische Deutsche Zeitung, the evening was made memorable by the virtuoso rendition on the piano by the Viennese born Madame Rawack, née Amalie Mauthner, of "a Fantasia by Döhler of melodies from Anna Bolena."

Amalie Mauthner, it may be noted, living in Sydney in straitened circumstances as the wife of a once prosperous, now discredited broker, exerted a strong spell on the scientists and officers on board the Novara. She was, en revanche and in their honour, to compose a piano piece which she poignantly titled "Home-chords". In a more blatantly commercial vein, the publicity-conscious Henry Marsh could also announce: "In the Press. 'The Novarra Galop'... dedicated to the commander and officers of the Imperial Frigate Novarra."

After a final, frenetic burst of socialising, the Novara, yawing slightly in an off-shore breeze, left her mooring at 8 a.m. on Tuesday, 7 December 1858. Outside the Heads, a course was laid for Auckland in New Zealand, where she would arrive on Wednesday, 22 December (Reise III, 95).

The Novara fever, which had raged in Sydney during November and early December of 1858, seems to have abated as soon as the Austrian frigate had vanished over the horizon. Even at its height, there were some in Sydney who wondered how seriously the strange scientific gentlemen on board were being taken by Sydney's learned circles. In the Sydney Morning Herald "A Member" pointed out:

Sir, The Novara is in Port Jackson freighted with science. What is the Philosophical Society about? No soirée, no conversations, no formal recognition of our fellow-labourers in the paths of knowledge. Are we really earnest in the pursuit of learning?'

News of the Novara's safe return to Trieste on 26 August 1859, of the exhibition of her scientific cargo in Vienna's Augartenpalais, of the printing and distribution of Scherzer's Reise, eventually reached Sydney's German community in a series of letters written to John Degotardi by Alois Auer von Welsbach (1813-69), the entrepreneurial director of the Viennese Hof- und Staatsdruckerei. Degotardi's own fond memories of the Novara's visit probably suffered a setback when he learned from Auer, à propos Degotardi's application for nomination as Austrian consul in Sydney, "Rear-Admiral Wüllerstorf has refused to have anything to do with it."

Fears had in fact been expressed in Sydney on the Novara's safe return to Europe. News of the outbreak of the (short-lived) Franco-Austrian War of 1859 reached Sydney on Wednesday, 6 July 1859. On Tuesday, 12 July 1859, the Sydney Morning Herald ran an editorial which said in part:

...we were lately visited by an Austrian vessel ... the Novarro. She was sent on a scientific expedition. She will be exposed to capture unless the more enlightened spirit of the present time should protect her in consideration of her mission.

The Novara remained, as we know, unmolested on the high seas. Wüllerstorf-Urbair had in fact learned of the war in Valparaiso and had sensibly and promptly set course for Trieste, where he found however that Napoleon III had declared the Novara neutral since "she carries scientific treasures and science is the public property of all nations of the world".

In Sydney, however, the European conflict, with its plangent echo of the Novara's visit, led to strange repercussions. The teenager Blanche Nicholson Mitchell (1843-69), who had repeatedly lost her heart to the Novara's junior officers, unblushingly recorded in her diary the "brilliant victory" of the French, "fighting nearly everywhere with singular bravery". In Balmain, on Thursday 7 July 1859, John Degotardi (1823-82), prominent Austrian-born printer and editor of Sydney's German newspaper, returned from his George Street office to find his (uninsured) house and furniture destroyed by fire. "The cause of the fire could not be ascertained."

Scherzer's "Reise"

Clearly, Karl Scherzer, who as a civilian was given special permission by Maximilian to wear consular uniform (and act as diplomat) during the circumnavigation, remains very much the linch-pin of the Novara's story. Likewise, much ferreting remains to be done amongst Scherzer's scattered papers and archival relics before the full story of the Novara's stay in Sydney can be unraveled.

The Sydney section of the Reise (III, 1-95) chronicles the outstanding social events of the Novara's sojourn in Sydney. For the European armchair traveller, it catalogues and describes the varied landmarks, fauna and flora in and around Sydney. It discusses, with some admiring glances at "England's psychological success" (III, 2), the vexed question of penal settlement and the social rehabilitation of wrong-doers (III, 57-9, 80-92). It analyses the economy of New South Wales (III, 19-20, 72-75), and dilates on the goldfields (III, 46-7, 75-8). It reports, with horrifying examples of multiple abuses, recent official moves to improve the lot of sea-borne German migrants (III, 48-52). The wretched state of the Aborigines is frequently touched upon, more dolefully than angrily (III, 27-35, 68-71) and there are fleeting pen-portraits of notable civilians. Throughout, the writing is tight, vibrant, buoyant.

Scherzer frequently makes use of material from official government publications, whose titles he invariably quotes. He also draws, without acknowledgment, from the columns of the Sydney Morning Herald, of the Australische Deutsche Zeitung, published in Sydney between 1856 and 1859, and from other accounts of their stay in Sydney made by his colleagues G. Frauenfeld and F. Hochstetter.

Scherzer's Correspondence

There are also, ostensibly, Scherzer letters in Sydney. The Australian Museum possesses records of letters written in Sydney by Scherzer, now filed at "Correspondence prior to 1883" (at E.40.5.8.1.). The letters themselves have been misplaced. They are in connection with Scherzer's presentation to the Museum of a case of 100 Miocene fossils from Vienna, a medallion in bronze of Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger, director-general of the Geological Society of Austria, and a chest of geological works, addressed to the Philosophical Society. The same minute records letters received from F. Hochstetter and W.K. von Haidinger, though neither is preserved. There is a list of specimens given to the Novara, in the same Minute Book. On this occasion a letter from Johann Zelebor was tabled (not preserved). Copies of letters of acknowledgment from the Museum's secretary, George French Angas to Scherzer (19 and 24 November 1858) have however survived.

On a similar tack, an interim report written by Scherzer in April of 1859 lists a consignment from Sydney of eight scholarly papers (by Scherzer), five manuscript Aboriginal "vocabularies", 23 printed official reports, almanacs etc., four skulls and 86 "diverse ethnographic objects." One of his papers here was the intriguingly titled "On the history of German migration to Australia." We have the gist of this, and his other reports, in the Reise (III, passim). We have the same gist, but amplified, in the two-volume, 1,078 page Statistical and Commercial Section (1865) of the Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde. The Sydney section is at II, 231-83.

In an effort to ensure up to date accuracy for what he wrote, Scherzer sent from Trieste in December of 1859 a printed 2-page circular letter to the world-wide network of what we might call the "Friends of the Novara" (their names are listed as Appendix IX at Reise III). In it he reports the Novara's safe return home, after a cruise of 849 days which covered 60,914 English miles. He also mentions Maximilian's wish that all said Friends should receive complimentary copies of the Reise, and he asks for "a short account of the most recent events of importance at your place, together with the newest statistical tables, comprising population, productions. commercial movements, exports, imports, etc. etc. etc." All replies (expenses will be met) are to be sent C/o Imperial Austrian Admiralty at Trieste.

The Mitchell Library possesses the circular sent to the Reverend John Dunmore Lang (1799-1878) in Sydney, who is listed as one of the 20 Novara supporters in Sydney. One wonders how generously the Sydney contacts responded to Scherzer's unveiled plea. One wonders too how much of such correspondents' material remains intact in Viennese archives.

Scherzer also made liberal use of the various reports drawn up by his scientific colleagues on board the Novara, in particular those by the geologist Ferdinand Hochstetter (1829-84) and the zoologist Georg Frauenfeld (1807-73). Like Scherzer, both men were ennobled soon after their return to Vienna.

Scherzer's Diary

As might be expected, Karl Scherzer kept a diary. Indeed, such was the cachet of pan-global travel in mid-nineteenth century Europe, there are probably some 351 other Novara diaries carefully and obscurely preserved in various Viennese drawers and family archives. What is less to be expected - and this has recently raised surprised eyebrows in Vienna itself - is that Scherzer's diary has been in the Mitchell Library, Sydney since Angus and Robertson's sold it to that institution in July 1939. The previous history of the manuscript is not known.

When compared to the bland formality and discursive digressions of the Reise, Scherzer's Diary is more direct, stronger in detail on people not in the public gaze, and on occasion even blunt and irascible. Some extracts can be introduced here.

At seven o'clock on the morning of Tuesday, 16 November 1858, Scherzer and the Commodore made their way in the ship's boat to inspect progress on the Novara then laid up in the Government dry dock at Cockatoo Island. Both were surprised at the ship's "colossal size. The biggest ship ever to enter the dock". They also met, perhaps not without mutual embarrassment, in the prison on Cockatoo Island, "an Austrian, Herr von Magiardi, sentenced to ten years for horse- stealing" and a "German doctor, Dr. Beer, imprisoned for the alleged poisoning of a woman with belladonna (5 gr.)".

Like many other people in Sydney at that time, Scherzer was taken aback at the severity of the Swiss doctor's sentence. He adds the note:

Several doctors intend to present a petition to the Governor in which they seek to demonstrate that the dosage is much too small to have a fatal effect (Diary, III, 50).

Scherzer was to be further taken aback that same morning when, returning home from the unfortunates on Cockatoo Island, he noticed:

... the numerous used bottles floating around in Port Jackson, said to be thrown into the water by missionaries, who first stuff them with religious tracts (Diary, III, 50).

On that same Tuesday, Scherzer and the Commodore, now accompanied by one of the expedition's botanists, J. Zelebor, and the artist J. Selleny, to say nothing of cabin-boy Alois Kraus, who was taken along to deal with the baggage, set off on a five-day visit to Wollongong and the Illawarra district. The excursion was not without its adventures. At Camden Park, after a hospitable meal with the Macarthurs, and whilst the Commodore and Zelebor "were trying to shoot some birds" (in Scherzer's diary the Commodore is often seen to march silently into the bush, his gun over his shoulder), Scherzer and Selleny chatted to some of the Germans employed by Macarthur in his vineyards. The Germans, mainly from the Rheingau and Baden-Württemberg, told Scherzer:

... they had already read of our imminent arrival and of the voyage of the Novara in the German newspaper which comes out in Sydney (Diary, III, 51).

They seemed contented and happy with their lot but "a feeling of melancholic reminiscence crept over them when we talked of home." Scherzer questioned the Germans closely on working conditions, wages and prospects (Diary, III 52), noting as he did their shaky German. One woman stoutly asserted, when her command of her native language was probed - "Oh no! Wir keep it immer in Exercise!"

The aura of misfortune slowly clouding Scherzer's party came to a head in Wollongong. A carefully planned kangaroo hunt, where even the Aboriginal trackers were "less skillful hunters than I would have thought" went grotesquely awry. Scherzer forgot to bring the instruments he used for measuring anthropological specimens. Zelebor fell ill and took to his bed. The Brighton Hotel's bill came to fourteen pounds for five people staying two and a half days (Diary, III, 59-61). Above all, the Sydney steamer was unable to anchor because of fierce winds, leaving Scherzer, Selleny and the Commodore, faced by commitments in Sydney already once postponed because of the allure of the kangaroo hunt, no choice but to improvise a chaotic return over land (Diary, III, 61-4).

Young Kraus was left behind at Wollongong to await a successful landing by the steamer and to cope both with the growing pile of luggage and pitiful corpses, and the ailing Zelebor. The steamer did not in fact reach Sydney until three a.m. on the Monday. Zelebor was put to bed in the Royal Hotel and Kraus was later promoted (1 January 1859) to seaman second-class.

Possibly Scherzer too had picked up Zelebor's complaint. He was certainly and quite dramatically ill (Diary, III, 77) on board the Novara during the first fortnight following their departure from Sydney for Auckland. Ill or not, his exasperated entry for Thursday, 25 November, would seem to have had some grounds for its irritability:

All my time is taken up in proof-reading the English manuscript of our 'Measurements', which I'm having printed at Degotardi's (at four pounds a sheet). The whole thing has been set so negligently by the compositor that a great number of mistakes, which distort the sense completely, are still in it. I'm almost inclined to have the whole thing set up again at the Government Printer's. Sir W. Denison has already offered to have it printed there for me cost free (Diary, III, 66).

While Scherzer was nursing such thoughts, the thunderous day of tribute (Saturday, 27 November 1858) on the birth of Crown Prince Rudolf intervened. To witness the ceremonial parade, to attend the solemn "Te Deum", to partake of the festive "Déjeuner", special guests were invited on board the Novara. They were "Herr Kirchner and his wife, sisters-in-law, Mr. Scott, then Frau Rawack, and two friends, and Herr Degotardi" (Diary, III, 68).

Scherzer was much impressed with Kirchner's wife - "you wouldn't believe she had already had seven children" (Diary, III, 46). He describes her as the daughter of A.W. Scott (1800-83), "member of parliament and owner of Ash Island". Kirchner's "sisters-in-law" here then are Harriet (1830-1907) and Helena Scott (1832-1910) who, competent artists and naturalists, were at this time collaborating with their father on the Australian Lepidoptera and their transformations (Ferguson 15513, 15513B). The Scott household on Ash Island in the Hunter was visited in turn by the expedition's zoologist G. Frauenfeld and, presumably, by Hochstetter. Curiously, both Frauenfeld and Hochstetter were not on board the Novara for this particular ceremony and "the Commodore was very peeved" (Diary, III, 68). Hochstetter still manages however to give a moving description of the morning's events for his Viennese readers, a report culled no doubt from the Australische Deutsche Zeitung.

This conscious act of expiation over, Scherzer could return the following day to his proof-reading:

Rain, worked all day at home, wrote letters. Mr. Stephens, headmaster at the Grammar School, has very kindly read through the English translation of our article in an exact and critical way. He found numerous errors and mistakes, even though Dr. Bennett and Dr. Browne had already gone through the proofs. I intend now to have this corrected version printed by the Government Printer, all the more since certain extremely important sentences are in fact in their present form completely incomprehensible. Spent the evening at Dr. Bennett's (Diary, III 68-9).

Hochstetter's Account

We have already looked at some of Hochstetter's ecstatic, frequently borrowed descriptions of the social scene during the Novara's stay in Sydney, descriptions which were written for and successively printed in the Wiener Zeitung. Hochstetter remains throughout aware of the local German community, provides close details of the socialising, and reproduces for example virtually verbatim most of the 13 vibrantly chauvinistic toasts offered on the occasion (25 November 1858) of the dinner given to the Novara's officers by the Sydney German Club.

The "beautiful Australian girls" (p.318) are given much prominence, as for example when we hear of "the photographic tableau by the German photographer Wilhelm Hetzer of the Novara's officers" and we learn that "prints of certain portraits are much sought after by the ladies" (p.321).

Socialising apart, Hochstetter also looks (p.325) briefly at Sydney's theatres ("mediocre") and the Museum ("too small, insufficient staff'). He gratefully lists (p.326) the Sydney collectors who have provided him with geological specimens, talks (pp.326-7) of the gold-fields (not visited), Chinese migration ("in Moreton Bay a German girl has married a Chinese", pp.327-8) and German migration ("ein jedes Wort Englisch ist einen Schilling werth", p.329). He eulogises Ferdinand von Müller and Georg Neumayer, laments Ludwig Leichhardt (p.330) and lachrymosely devotes his last Sydney words to the sorry fate of "Ricketty Dick, the old King of Botany Bay" (p.331). A visit to the Hunter and Newcastle, and to A.W. Scott's Ash Island retreat, is barely glossed (p.326).

It was incidentally Hochstetter's presence on board the Novara that brought about the ship's visit to Auckland, "our veritable Antipodes" (p.302), when Wüllerstorf-Urbair was able to accede to a request made by Sir William Denison, who had in turn been approached by the New Zealand authorities for help in determining the extent and value of suspected coal deposits.

Frauenfeld's Account

The zoologist Georg Frauenfeld's essay on the Sydney visit, unlike Hochstetter's smooth drawing-room repartee, has something of the ring of a Latin text-book as he delightedly identifies in turn all creatures great and small in the environs of Sydney. His is the description (Reise, III, 43-6) of an excursion to the Hunter Valley and to Ash Island. It was from here, after much admiring the Scott family's labours on Australian butterflies and moths (Frauenfeld, pp.6-7), that he rode to the Sugarloaf, which he climbed, and back, completing the 40-mile ride In silvery moonlight (pp.7-10).

He also went by sea-tossed steamer to Kiama, seeing by way of recompense the blowhole in magnificent action. He made rainy visits to Dapto, Wollongong, Appin, Campbelltown, collecting furiously, and making his first acquaintance with the Australian leech (pp.10-13). He was given Cuban flies and Australian spiders by W.J. Macleay (pp.16-17), snakes by Alfred Roberts (p.15). He bought fish at the Sydney fish markets, caught further and fresher specimens on the Manly beach, on a fishing trip in the North Harbour (pp.17-8). He spent an entranced afternoon at the private zoo at Botany Bay where, to the perplexity of the proprietor, he ignored the tiger, lioness, grizzly bear and elephant, and spent the hours with dingoes, wallabies, kangaroos and parrots (pp.14-5).

He also acquired a living koala bear which, during his Kiama excursion, ran amok in his Sydney lodgings, upset a vat of ethyl alcohol and perished in the resultant fumes (p.18). An equally percipient echidna, sent by A.W. Scott, leapt overboard from the Novara on the first night out from Sydney (p.18).

Codanich's Diary

If we can for a while extricate ourselves from Scherzer's tentacular grip on Novara material, we find there are at least two other diaries of shipboard life kept by his fellow circumnavigators. One is by Dominik Codanich, petty officer 3rd. Class, of whom, apart from the fact that his wife Maria lived on the island of Veglia (now Krk) in the Gulf of Fiume (now Gulf of Rijeka), nothing is known. His diary, written in a curious (to me) Italian dialect, was equally curiously (to me) published during 1982 in an edition of 600 copies by the Institute of Brain Anatomy in Waldau-Berne, Switzerland, and was edited, with minimal editorial apparatus, by two Trieste academics. Its existence was drawn to my attention by the Archivio di Stato di Trieste (letter from the Director, Ugo Cova, of 14 November 1983) in subtle rebound to my inquires about Scherzer's putative "Stammbuch".

There are daily entries, almost invariably laconic. Close attention is paid to fogs, to the raising and lowering of flags, to the technical problems of the Novara's entry into and out from the dry dock, to the painting and cleaning up of the ship. The firing of salutes looms large: we learn (Codanich, p.159) that on the first Saturday (6 November 1858) the Novara's 21-gun salute at 8 a.m. was not answered by Fort Macquarie until 11 a.m. There are always lots of "ladies and gentlemen" coming and going, and in the small hours following the grand ball we are told McGonagal-like: "a massive silence reigned on board because everyone had gone to sleep" (p.169). Codanich also prefers a highly personalised transcription for proper names, e.g. Sercei for Scherzer.

Müller's Diary

The second diary is in stark, almost comic contrast to Codanich's lower-deck, unobservant observations. It was kept by Robert Müller, who was midshipman on the Novara until 1 November 1858, when he was promoted lieutenant. His diary, now in the Österreichisches Staatsarchiv in Vienna at Kriegsarchiv (altes Marinearchiv), is an elegant, sophisticated, super-technical replay of Codanich's quasi-illiterate, telegram-like comments. As such it takes up everything that happened to the Novara in Sydney waters, but does so in a high-powered jargonistic language that befits a newly created lieutenant. A haze of specialist terms for shrouds, rigging, individual sails and spars, and other mysterious marine impedimenta befogs the reader. It is only when Müller goes on shore or talks of the Germans living in Sydney that full recognition comes. Unfortunately for us, Müller was an inordinately conscientious officer who disliked formal socialising. He did go to the odd ball or dance, but preferred to frequent Balmain public-houses and expensive city coffee-houses, usually with friend Toni, the same Anton Basso, the ship's bursar, who by the end of the Sydney visit (Müller, p.194) had paid out some 12000 pounds sterling in Rothschild drafts.

Müller's dislike of dances, balls, dinners, suppers, breakfasts, teas, thés-dansants, picnics, and the other myriad distractions to which all Novara officers were daily subjected, meant that he frequently stood watch for other less seriously-minded officers, midshipmen and marine cadets. He even, on the occasion of the grand ball (p.193), got 1st Lt. Moritz Monfroni de Montfort to take over his rostered dance with the alluring Mme. Amalie Rawack. Which is curious, since in a postscript to the Sydney entry where he describes the general depression and homesickness for Sydney on board, he devotes half a column (p.196) to detailing the not inconsiderable charms of Mme. Rawack.

Müller's diary is a goldmine of general information on the reaction of his fellow officers to the Sydney visit. He too was possibly contributing items to an unspecified Viennese journal or newspaper (there are references to the "Feuilleton": e.g. p.194). He was much chagrined when a spilt bottle of ink in his drawer ruined letter No 21 to Vienna, to say nothing of his photograph as "Midshipman on Shore Leave", for which he had paid Wilhelm Hetzer one pound (p.193). It was also Müller, as diligent officer on watch, who rescued Mrs. McKay from "a watery grave" (p.193) when the boat she was in was jostled by the Washington on the night of the German community's welcome.

Perhaps he himself was still in a state of delayed shock the next day at the Dinner offered by the German Club (in which, he tells us (p.194), were many "Children of Israel"). He grumpily found the food bad, the drinks even worse, and Mr. Wallach's toast to "Australia", which strikingly began "We have sheep...", "tedious and stupid" (p.192). After the Dinner, he went with Toni to the Prince of Wales Theatre, which proclaimed itself "Under the Patronage of the Austrian Commodore and Officers". The performance was "bad", the audience "not quite respectable" and the dismal evening was clouded even further by the antics of ship-of- the-line lieutenant Bela Gaal de Gyula "with his harem in the Upper Boxes" (p.192a).

Such acerbic and uncharacteristic comments apart, Müller could tell himself, as the Sydney visit came to an end, that he had enjoyed "a thorough rest, a combination of intellectual work and dolce far niente" (p.196). He took with him to Auckland the kangaroo-dog Dido, presented to him by Mr. Alexander Dick: the same obliging gentleman had also endowed midshipman Ernst Jacoby with two like animals. The Hamburg and (in spe) Austrian Consul Wilhelm Kirchner (1814-93) had similarly procured two magnificent specimens for the emperor Franz Joseph which he had entrusted to the Commodore, whilst Moritz Monfroni de Montfort had become the proud owner of the kangaroo-dog Australia, given to him by Mr. Mitchell. The new canine passengers joined Morok, Chora, Dingo and Hong Kong, who were already on board (p.194).

Blanche Mitchell's Diary

The social scene which Robert Müller did his best to avoid is writ large in the diary kept by the 15 year old Blanche Mitchell, one of the five daughters of Sir Thomas and Lady Mary Mitchell. Her very first ball was that held on the Novara.

Her ingenuous jottings throb with vitality and life. She grew particularly fond of the "darling officers" (Mitchell, p.139), amongst whom marine cadet Ludwig Meder, with his "tall figure, his bushy black whiskers and soft drooping eyes" (p.140), quickly became her favourite. The Austrians were "the nicest fellows I have ever seen" (p.137) and the frenetic social whirl, which she documents with wide-eyed wonder, and which she itemizes dance by dance, eventually drew from Blanche (who was to die unmarried in 1869 at the age of 26) the admission: "Surely this dissipation is very bad... my left side aches eternally... the pain got so bad at the ball that I was obliged to retire for a few minutes gasping" (p.141).

Caroline Mann's Diary

The ten volume diary of her best friend, Mary Caroline Mann (1842-1936), remains unpublished. She was a year older than Blanche and one of the daughters of Mary and Gother Kerr Mann, engineer-in-chief at the Cockatoo Island dock. Blanche frequently refers to her vivacity and beauty, and could in fact comment on Minnie, in her description of the Drews' ball at Neutral Bay on Friday, 3 December 1858: "her black eyes made general havoc amongst the Austrians" (Mitchell, p.141). Minnie however never married: she died in 1936 at the age of 94.

Minnie writes with perception, with wit. There are traces still of the young girl, as when she exclaims at the monkeys they were taken to see on the Novara (Mann, p.223), as when she rhapsodically contemplates marine cadet Richard Baron Walterskirchen, "who looked so handsome, he has such beautiful eyes and such a sweet expression when he smiles" (pp.246-7). But she is more close to the adults in her life, can follow and understand their teasing, can interpolate telling anecdotes and pick up nuances of feeling ("the Prince [Eugen, Prince Wrede] was very cold when he went" (p.192), which Blanche, too involved in living every moment to the full, never seems to sense.

Minnie's comment on the Austrians: "indeed in fact none of them look like foreigners" (p.194) would have been lost on Blanche, rather like Minnie's reluctance to dance a polka on the deck of the Novara the afternoon they were being shown round by the cadets, until "I turned round and saw all the rest capering away. When Mama saw us all dancing in broad daylight, her astonishment was - interesting" (p.226).

Scientific Reports

The diaries then are variously rich in nautical details, in berthing etiquette, social mores and socialising. In a curious sort of way they have a much magnified parallel commentary in print, in the nine (in 20) volumes and 8,175 pages of the collected scientific reports and findings which resulted from the Novara's voyage. Prepared by 41 writers, who based their texts on the Herculean efforts in recording and collecting performed by the scientists on board the Novara, the various volumes appeared in Vienna between 1861 and 1875. Their appearance was seen by the Imperial and Royal authorities not only as their patent duty to scholarship but also as "the fulfillment of a matter of national honour."

The safeguarding of the honour of Austria did not come cheap. The cost of the total publishing enterprise ran to 615,560 florins, and the full set was sold for 752 reichsmark (with coloured plates) or 628 reichsmark (monochrome plates). Some of the foundation contributors paid a greater price: neither Johann Zelebor (d. 1869) nor Georg von Frauenfeld (d. 1873) lived to see the completion of their six part Zoological Section (1864-75) with its descriptive listing of 26,260 specimens. The ship's doctor Eduard Schwarz, who had collaborated with Scherzer in publishing their Measurements in Sydney in November 1858 could produce only one (1861) of the two projected volumes of the Medical Section before his death in 1862.

Schwarz's notes and comments on the physical well-being and sundry distempers experienced in Sydney by the Novara's crew, officers and scientists did however see the light of day in his first (and only) volume. They include the poignant case of the dysentery victim "whom we removed at his request from the Sydney infirmary, even though we could foresee his imminent death. The patient remained in complete ignorance of the true gravity of his condition..." (p.99). We find similarly full chapter and verse of the Novara's stay in Sydney in the printed ship's log (Nautical and Physical Section, 1862-5) where (pp.361-71) Robert Müller and Dominik Codanich's private and hurried scribblings are confirmed, and occasionally amplified.

Elsewhere in this leviathan set, amongst the labyrinthine groupings of genus and species, we find frequent references to the flora and fauna, both terrestrial and marine, which were plucked or uprooted, shot, pickled or skinned in the Sydney area. Given are location, finder or donor, and the date of discovery or donation. Apart from obvious exotica, such as kangaroo or koala bear, snake or spider, the lichens and fungi of the Dapto area are well to the fore in the Botanical Section (1868-70, four parts, passim), whilst local beetles, worms and leeches figure prominently and again passim in the Zoological Section. Indeed, 205 species of beetle, including 17 new ones, were so to speak pinned down in the Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle littoral. In the Novara's world-wide beetle haul, New South Wales was exceeded in specimens only by Brazil (358) and Chile (269).

To the 8,175 pages of print we have to add the 434 full-page plates, usually in colour, which are interspersed throughout the text. These are the work of more than 30 artists, who sketched and painted directly from the countless specimens regularly dispatched by the Novara's scientists from their successive stopovers. After public exhibition in 1860 in Vienna's Augartenpalais the vast range of material was subsequently broken up and divided between court, state and university collections within the Austro-Hungarian empire. The artists were however also able to draw upon the bulging portfolios, holding over 2000 illustrations, brought back by the Novara's travel artist Joseph Selleny.

Joseph Selleny's Paintings and Drawings

One of the many artistic protégés of Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Selleny was 33 when in March 1857 he was rated official artist on board the Novara. Like the scientists attached to the expedition, Selleny lived on shore throughout the Sydney visit. During his stay at the Royal Hotel, his health was not of the best, a distemper possibly brought on by a nerve-straining episode in the Pacific Ocean when on 18 October 1858 the monkeys on board escaped from their cage and, during Mass, ran colorfully amok amongst his equipment.

Selleny did however make several excursions from Sydney. He went to Wollongong and produced, variously in watercolours, crayons, charcoal and pencil, studies of the bush near Camden Park, Appin, and Sir Thomas Mitchell's Pass. There are two coloured drawings of the Fairy Meadow farm near Wollongong and three watercolours of Illawarra Aborigines in Viennese collections. He also traveled north to the Hunter River (Bush on the Hunter: pencil with wash) and to Ash island (pencil with wash), where he stayed with the ever-hospitable A.W. Scott and his two daughters Harriet and Helena. Here he designed the front cover of, and did several drawings of specimens for, the first part of A.W. Scott's Australian Lepidoptera (London, 1864). There are also two drawings in pencil of scenes in Sydney: the one of a "beach promenade" the other of Darling Point.

Known for his lightning speed in delineation, Selleny produced strongly lined and strictly objective drawings, which leaned heavily on his own practical knowledge of botany and geology. His colours, invariably ochre, green, blue or red, were applied with thrift. In 1957 the Dixson Galleries, Sydney, bought a folder of 13 pencil drawings which had served as models in illustrating Karl von Scherzer's Reise. Plans in Vienna to produce a chromolithographic album of Selleny's most striking oils, watercolours and drawings never came to fruition. Selleny spent the last two years of his life in the darkness of a total mental collapse. When he died, on 22 May 1875, in a private asylum at Inzersdorf near Vienna, his heirs inherited the 946 Novara items still in his possession. A memorial exhibition, which showed 540 of these, was held in Vienna (Künstlerhaus) from November 1875 until January 1876.

Conclusion

The complete dossier of the Novara's visit to Sydney remains to be completed. Primary sources in Vienna and Trieste are yet to be sighted, evaluated, used. Further Sydney material will include diaries, official records, correspondence, personal papers, biographies and memoirs, autograph-albums, scrap-books, visitors' books, photographs, dance and theatre programmes. Only then, and not until then, will the chrysaline time-capsule, that is the Novara's stay in Australian waters, reveal once more its true iridescence.

Endnotes

1 This article was originally published in W. Boyd Rayward (ed.), Australian Library History in Context: Papers for the Third Forum on Australian Library History, University of New South Wales, 17 and 18 July 1987, School of Librarianship, University of New South Wales, 1988, 7-25.

2 Anthony Eugene Sokol, Seemacht Österreich. Die Kaiserliche und Königliche Kriegsmarine 1382-1918, F. Molden, Vienna, Munich and Zürich, 1972, 90-93, 204; reprinted in English as The Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Navy, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, 1968, 26-7, 29-31.

3 Blanche Nicholson Mitchell, Blanche: An Australian Diary 1858-1861, Edna Hickson (ed.), J. Ferguson, Sydney, 1980, 138.

4 Karl von Scherzer, Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde (1857-1859, K. und K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna, 1861-2, three vols. Reprinted in three volumes in 1862-5 and 1864-6. A "popular edition" in two volumes appeared in 1864-6 and again in 1869-70. It was translated into English as Narrative of the circumnavigation of the globe by the Austrian Frigate Novara in the years 1857, 1858 and 1859, Saunders, Otley and Co., London, 1861-3, three volumes, and into Italian (K. und K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna, 1863-5, three vols). An illustrated digest from the original three volumes is found at Karl von Scherzer, Die Weltumsegelung der Novara 1857-1859, Günter Treffer (ed.), F. Molden, Vienna, Munich and Zürich, 1973. All subsequent references are to the original German edition of 1861-2.

5 A. v. Humboldt, Kosmos, Cotta, Stuttgart, 1845-62; c.f. Hanno Beck, Alexander von Humboldt, F. Steiner, Wiesbaden, 1959-61, II, 214-7.

6 Ferdinand von Hochstetter, Gesammelte Reiseberichte von der Erdumsegelung der Fregatte 'Novara' 1857-1859, V. von Haardt (ed.), E. Hözel, Vienna, 1885, 298-331.

7 Ibid., 300-301.

8 Letter dated Vienna, 8 February 1859, from A. Auer to J. Degotardi, Sydney. Original in the Degotardi Papers, Mitchell Library, Sydney. Reprinted in J.E. Fletcher, 1984b, 42-3.

9 This "Demonstration of the German Residents of Sydney ... Admittance on board the steamer by tickets only" was advertised in the Sydney Morning Herald of Saturday, 20 November 1858 over the name of C.B. Süssmilch, the musically gifted Honorary Secretary of the German Club. The evening as such was written up in the Sydney Morning Herald of Thursday, 25 November 1858, 8.

10 Sydney Morning Herald, 29 November 1858.

11 The Address is given as Appendix I in Reise, III. It is also reproduced in full by Hochstetter, op cit., 306-8, and as appendix to this volume.

12 Hochstetter, op. cit., 303-11.

13 Ibid., 311-17; c.f. Sydney Morning Herald, 29 November 1858, 5.

14 Hochstetter, op cit., 318-9; c.f. Sydney Morning Herald, 1 December 1858.

15 Hochstetter, op cit., 320-1.

16 The complete programme of ten items was advertised in the Sydney Morning Herald on Saturday, 20 November 1858, and again on the Monday. A further note in Monday's issue (p.4) reminds readers that "visitors are required, by the rules of the society, to attend in evening dress."

17 I am grateful to F. Czeike, Director of the Stadt- und Landesarchiv in Vienna, for his attempt to document Amalie Mauthner's earlier presence in Vienna (letter of 7 November 1983). There are incidental references to Mauthner in Francis Campbell Brewer, The Drama and Music in New South Wales, Government Printer, Sydney, 1892, 62; and in William Arundel Orchard, Music in Australia. More than 150 Years of Development, Georgian House, Melbourne, 1952, 37 and 137. Orchard tells us (p.137) that "Amy Rawack seems to be the first visiting musician to request her audience to wear evening dress, also to avoid encores." It was Miss Mauthner too who alone in Sydney music circles in the summer of 1854-5 managed to soothe the irascible breast of the visiting violinist Michael Hauser, who could write of his compatriot's "charming ... and pleasant company." See his Aus dem Wanderbuche eines Österreichischen Virtuosen. Briefe aus Californien, Südamerika und Australien, F.W. Grunow, Leipzig, 1860, I, 214. The Rawacks had also lost their 21 months old daughter earlier that year - refer Sydney Morning Herald of 19 February 1858.

18 Mme. Rawack's offering, "Heimatklänge, zur Feier der Anwesenheit der Novara-Expedition in Sydney, componirt von Frau Amalie Rawack-Mauthner", is printed as Appendix II (4 pp. fold out) at Reise, III. It is however omitted in all subsequent editions.

19 Sydney Morning Herald, 20 November 1858.

20 Sydney Morning Herald, 29 November 1858.

21 John Fletcher, John Degotardi. Printer, Publisher and Photographer, Book Collectors' Society of Australia, Sydney, 1984, 42-5, 59-64.

22 Letter of 7 February 1862.

23 Sokol, Seemacht Österreich, op cit., 93.

24 Mitchell, op cit., 225.

25 Sydney Morning Herald, 8 July 1859, 5.

26 Substantial holdings of manuscript material by and on Scherzer in nine Viennese archives and libraries are listed in Albin Oppolzer, 'Karl Scherzer', University of Vienna, Doctoral Dissertation, 1949, 209-10. The thesis remains unpublished. The most important collection of material on the voyage of the Novara itself is at the Österreichisches Staatsarchiv in Vienna (Kriegearchiv: 'Weltumseglung der Novara').

27 Australian Museum, Sydney. Minute Books, volume 1, 1836-63. Therein at the entry for the Special Meeting of the Trustees on 18 November 1858.

28 Ibid., General Monthly Meeting of 2 December 1858.

29 Australian Museum, Sydney. Letter Books, volume 1, 1837-61, 142-4.

30 Karl Scherzer, 'Das Zwelte Jahr der Erdumsegelung S.M. Fregatte Novara', Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, 37, 1859, 5-24. Here reference is to pp.17-9. Reproduced in the Appendices section to this site.

31 The circular is at Mitchell Library, Sydney, ML MSS 3016 and is printed in English.

32 Karl Scherzer, 'Tagebuch geführt während einer Reise um die Erde 1857-1859'. Three vols., totaling 834 pages, Mitchell Library, Sydney, MSS A2633-5. The Sydney section is at A2635 pp.42-77. I am grateful to the Mitchell Library for permission to draw from these pages.

33 John Fletcher, 'Karl Scherzer and the Visit of the Novara to Sydney in 1858', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 71, December 1985, 189-206.

34 J. Ferguson, Bibliography of Australia, Canberra, 1948, entries 6862-66.

35 Karl Scherzer and Eduard Schwarz, On Measurements as a Diagnostic Means for Distinguishing the Human Races, The Authors, Sydney, 1858. No title page, viii, 26 pp. (pp.21-6 Appendix). "Printed for private circulation only." Dr. E. Schwarz was one of the three doctors on board the Novara.

36 Hochstetter, op. cit., 326.

37 Ibid., 317.

38 Ibid., 311-6.

39 'Wilhelm Hetzer', in J. Kerr (ed.), Dictionary of Australian Artists to 1870, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, 1992.

40 Sir William Denison, Varieties of Vice-Regal Life, Longmans. Green and Co., London, 1870, I, 454.

41 Georg von Frauenfeld, Notizen gesanwalt während meines Aufenthalts auf Neuholland, Neuseeland und Taiti, K. Gerolds Sohn, Vienna, 1860.

42 G. Pilleri and P. Tadeo (eds.), Un Grande Figlio di Trieste. Bernhard von Wüllerstorf-Urbair. La Circumnavigazione della Imperialregia Fregata "Novara". Il Diario Inedito di Dominik Codanick, Battelliere di 3a Classe, Hirnanatomisches Institut, Waldau-Bern, 1982, 227p.

43 The volume containing an account of the Novara visit is located at the Mitchell Library, B995, pp.191-253. I am grateful to Suzanne Mourot for drawing my attention to this diary [JF]. A transcript of the relevant section is included in this volume.

44 Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859, K. und K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna, 1861-75. For list of contents, see entry at National Union Catalogue NUC 424: 143-4. A fuller listing is at Catalogue of the Books, Manuscripts, Maps and Drawings in the British Museum (Natural History), The Trustees, London, 1903, I, 74-5.

45 Johann Spitzka, Übersichtliche Darstellung der unter dem Titel: "Reise..." erschienenen Publicationen. Zur Orientirung die Käufer und zur Erleichterung der Ordnung für die Besitzer des ganzen Werkes, K. und K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna, 1877, vii. We also find here that by 1876 Scherzer's Reise had sold 29,000 copies.

46 Albertina, Vienna, stock nos. 6565 and 28.817; Österreichische Galerie, Vienna, stock no. 3592.

47 Albertina, Vienna, stock no. 6564; Neue Galerie, Graz, stock no. II 2806; and at the Österreichische Galerie, Vienna, stock nos. 2266a-c.

48 Albertina, Vienna, stock no. 28.966; Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna, stock no. MI 2265.

49 Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, stock no. MI 2264; Albertina, Vienna, stock no. 6563.

50 Spitzka, Übersichtliche Darstellung, viii.

51 Liselotte Popelka, Ein Österreichischer Maler Segelt um die Welt, H. Böhlau, Graz and Cologne, 1964.


Index | Ship History | Scherzer Diary | Expedition Narrative | Sydney | Selleny | Bibliography | Novara Expedition
Hochstetter I | Blanche Mitchell Diary | Minnie Mann Diary | Hochstetter II | FitzRoy Dock | Scherzer in Sydney
Frauenfeld Diary | Incident at Sikyana | Sydney Chronology | Appendicies
| Lissa 1866 | Ferdinand Maximillian

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