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| Lissa 1866 | Ferdinand Maximillian

FERDINAND von HOCHSTETTER in AUSTRALIA

His Published Travelogues

Geologist and Journalist with the Austrian Novara Expedition 1857-9

Michael Organ and Georg Vladar

Introduction

Ferdinand Hochstetter, February 1859. Lithographic portrait by J. Dauthage of Vienna.

Christian Gottlieb Ferdinand Hochstetter was born in Esslingen, Württemberg, Germany, on 30 April 1829 (Woodward, 1884; Sarjeant, 1980; Carlé, 1988; Fleming, 1990), the son of Christian Ferdinand Hochstetter (1787-1860), a Lutheran parson and professor at Esslingen's Royal High School Teachers' College. The elder Hochstetter was a scholar in his own right, publishing popular works on botany, geology and palaeontology. Young Ferdinand entered Tübingen University in 1847 to study for the Lutheran ministry, however his interests in the earth sciences were to distract him from any religious vocation. Having completed his theological studies in 1851, Hochstetter gained a doctorate in philosophy the following year, presenting a thesis on the mineralogy of calcspar.

In 1853, following on an invitation from Professor Wilhelm von Haidinger (1795-1871) of Vienna who was impressed with the skills of this young geologist, Hochstetter joined the Austrian Geological Survey and was subsequently appointed chief geologist for Bohemia. In 1856 he was admitted as a lecturer to the University of Vienna and found favour with the Austrian Court. As a consequence, he was offered the position of official geologist to the scientific expedition aboard the Austrian Imperial Frigate Novara, in a circumnavigation of the globe between 1857-9.

Whilst this posting provided Hochstetter with an opportunity to travel the world and expand his knowledge of the physical sciences, it also had its limitations. One writer noted in a later obituary that "...a voyage round the world with but short stoppages at distant and isolated stations might serve for general scientific investigation, but afforded but little opportunity for the geologist" (Woodward, 1884). Nevertheless, despite the constraints of life on board a crowded frigate, Hochstetter was able to carry out extensive investigations of the geology of various South Seas islands and parts of South East Asia, before heading on to the Antipodes. Hochstetter visited Australia and New Zealand during 1858-9, spending nine months in the latter country. His findings appeared in the 3-volume geological section of the Novara Reise..., published in Vienna between 1864-6, and in various articles to be found in the Viennese scientific journals of the day.

During the brief, 4-week visit to New South Wales between 5 November and 7 December 1858, Hochstetter visited the Newcastle coalfields and acquired a collection of geological specimens from the Australian Museum, the Reverend W.B. Clarke, and Mr. Keene, the Examiner of Coalfields. During this time he also received a request from the Governor of the Colony, Sir William Denison, to carry out an official geological survey of the Drury coalfield in New Zealand. As this work would most likely require his detachment from the Novara for a period, Hochstetter was initially loath to accept the posting. However his mind was changed when the New Zealand authorities promised to cover all his expenses, support the survey with porters and equipment, and pay his return passage to Vienna.

Following its departure from Sydney, the Novara arrived in New Zealand at the end of December 1858. The stay there was brief, with the vessel departing Auckland on 4 January 1859, and leaving our intrepid geologist behind. Hochstetter's extended stay in the country offered perhaps the best opportunity of the whole voyage for detailed fieldwork. His detachment from the vessel enabled him not only to investigate the Drury coalfield in some detail, but also other parts of the North and South Islands.

As a result of his extensive field work during 1859 and subsequent research and publications, this itinerant Austrian geologist is now proclaimed "the Father of New Zealand Geology," such is his influence and scope of his work. Numerous works have appeared over the years outlining his pioneering endeavours, and a number of his writings on New Zealand have been translated in English, ensuring his continued eminence in the history of the development of the earth sciences in that country.

Hochstetter left New Zealand for Sydney aboard the Prince Alfred on 2 October 1859, arriving there on the 8th. He was only in Sydney for 8 days, during which time he arranged transport of his various collections to Austria and of his own passage to Melbourne, plus obtained further specimens from the Australian Museum collection, and revisited old acquaintances. His manuscript notebook of the time contains entries for artist and Australian Museum curator George French Angas, pianist Mme. Amalie Rawack, newspaper editor/publisher John Degotardi, scientist William Macleay, Governor Sir William Denison, and the photographer Wilhelm Hetzer, all of whom he had met during the previous visit in 1858.

On 15 October Hochstetter boarded the Wonga Wonga for the coastal voyage to Melbourne. Arriving there on the 18th, he enjoyed an extended 4-week stay, during which time he was able to make the acquaintance of the local German and scientific communities. His host during the visit was the Government Botanist Ferdinand von Mueller. Hochstetter's notebook records brief biographical entries for individuals such as Von Mueller, geologists Richard Daintree and Professor McCoy, artist Eugen v. Guerard, and political figures such as Governor Sir Henry Barkly, along with copious notes on the local geology.

In pursuance of his geological studies, Hochstetter was able to make an extended tour of the Victorian goldfields between 25 October and 8 November, visiting Castlemaine, Tarrangower, Bendigo, Sandhurst, Ballarat and Geelong. Upon his return to Melbourne he was feted by the local German fraternity. Dinners were held at Hockin's Hotel and the Criterion Hotel with Hochstetter as guest of honour, and on 16 November a meeting of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria was given over to his presentation of an illustrated lecture on the geology of New Zealand.

Hochstetter boarded the Benares on 18 November for the return voyage to Europe, via Western Australia and Suez. He arrived back at Trieste, the Novara's home-port, on 9 January 1860, some 5 months after his shipmates.

Major works on New Zealand geology by Hochstetter, produced in association with the Novara expedition and its official publication program, began appearing after 1863, though the geologist had been writing and compiling reports of both a scientific and general nature since he first boarded the Novara in 1857. One such exercise included his work as a roving journalist for a Viennese newspaper, the Wiener Zeitung. Between 1857-9 Hochstetter sent home reports of his travels which were published in 42 parts within that journal. Some of his letters from the Novara also appeared in Stuttgart's Schwäbische Merkur during 1858. Following his death on 18 July 1884, the Wiener Zeitung articles were compiled by V. von Haardt and published the following year in book form as Ferdinand v. Hochstetter's Gesammelte Reise-Berichte von der Erdumseglung der fregatte "Novara" 1857-1859 (Vienna, 1885).

As the attached bibliography reveals, between 1859-64 Ferdinand von Hochstetter prepared numerous reports on aspects of Australian and New Zealand geology, geography and palaeontology for the Imperial Academy of Science, Vienna. Six of the Australian studies were subsequently published in German-language journals. They included 'Notice of some fossil animal remains, and their deposits in Australia' (1859); 'On Diprotodon Australia (Owen) and Nototherium Mitchelii (Owen)' (1859); and 'Bone remains and related gypsum-castings from Australia and New Zealand' (1864). During this time he was also heavily involved in the large-scale program to publish the findings of the Novara expedition, a program which was not completed until 1877. Hochstetter's own volumes of the Reise... were mainly concerned with the geology of New Zealand.

Following his return to Austria in 1860 Hochstetter received a knighthood from Württemberg and was appointed Professor of Mineralogy and Geology at the Royal and Imperial Polytechnic Institute in Vienna, a post he held until 1874. From this base he continued to teach, work in the field, and write prolifically, publishing numerous articles and books, including a popular textbook of mineralogy and geology. Hochstetter was a member of many learned societies, and president of the Geological Society of Vienna between 1867-82. In 1876 he was appointed first superintendent of the Imperial Natural History Museum in Vienna, and still held that post at the time of his death in 1884.

In addition to the many accolades he received during his lifetime for his European studies, Hochstetter was widely known for his researches in New Zealand. A 1956 Viennese magazine article proclaimed him "Professor and Honorary Chief of the Maoris," and more recent New Zealand writers have raised Hochstetter up as the "founding father" of New Zealand geology (Kermode, 1992), calling him "undoubtedly the outstanding member of the Novara expedition" (Fleming, 1990). From a New Zealand perspective this may be true, as his treatises on New Zealand geology published between 1864-7 remain landmark works, and he continued to research and publish upon New Zealand throughout his life. In Austria Hochstetter came to be regarded as a pre-eminent geologist, mineralogist, stratigrapher and educator. His later research included palaeontological studies on fossil animals and birds.

Whilst New Zealand has much to honour Ferdinand Hochstetter for in regards to the development of scientific inquiry in that part of the world, the results of his brief visit to Australia in 1858 appear meagre, and have been little studied. Only a few journal articles by Hochstetter on the topic appeared between 1859-64, and his 1884 Gesammelte Reise-Berichte contains little geology, being mostly of a social and political nature. All this material was originally published in the native German, thereby limiting access to Australian scholars. Fortunately, his Australian and New Zealand geological notebooks have recently come to light in an Austrian collection, and form a valuable adjunct to the Gesammelte Reise-Berichte, which nevertheless remains the most lively account of the Austrian geologist's visit to Australia in 1858.

The 'Gesammelte Reise-Berichte...' (Collected Travel-Logs)

Whilst a member of the Novara expedition, Ferdinand Hochstetter was a correspondent for the Viennese newspaper Wiener Zeitung, submitting 42 pieces as a 'Travel-Log' describing the more sociable aspect of the circumnavigation. They initially appeared in that paper between 18 May 1857 and 15 April 1859, and were also reprinted in installments within several German newspapers. Some of his letters appeared in Stuttgart's Schwäbische Merkur of 1858. Following his death in 1884, the original articles were compiled into a single volume and published in Vienna as Gessammelte Reise-Berichte von der Erdumseglung der Fregatte "Novara" 1857-1859, with a photographic portrait of the author as frontispiece. Pages 298-331 of the Gesammelte Reise-Berichte describe the visit to Sydney between 4 November and 7 December 1858, and form an important part of the extant record.

Bearing in mind that these articles were written - or 'compiled', making liberal use of extracts from local Sydney newspapers - for a popular readership, and never intended for a purely scientific audience, it is understandable that Hochstetter's 'Travel-Logs' are journalistic effusions, rather than the obvious writings of a learned geologist. His account of the visit to Sydney primarily reports upon the various festivities which took place there, and the reception by the local German and Austrian communities. Hochstetter quotes extensively from John Degotardi's Australische Deutsche Zeitung (The Australian German Gazette), published in Sydney between 1856-60, and it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the scientist's own writings and those extracted from this and other local dailies.

The scientist's literary gifts are often found wanting, especially when we compare the Gessammelte Reise-Berichte with separate accounts of the Novara's Sydney visit, such as the wonderfully lively and immediate manuscript diary of the expedition's ethnographer and official historian Karl Scherzer. In the words of the present translator of Hochstetter's 'Travel-Logs', "Scherzer's observations ..... are riveting - a very far cry from the platitudinous, actually downright boring blather of Hochstetter; an endless ping-pong game of fatuous addresses in the worst sort of Victorian (and German at that) pomposity, style and content of a paper of Lower Slobovia." In all fairness, much of the "platitudinous blather" may have came from the hand of the Australische Deutsche Zeitung journalist Degotardi, though Hochstetter did prefer to include such passages in his reports.

As a social piece, his 'Travel-Logs' fill many gaps in the surviving record, as no complete copies of the Australische Deutsche Zeitung from the period of the Novara visit are known in Australian collections; neither is there a personal journal by Hochstetter describing his Australian visit in a manner similar to Scherzer's diary. His extant notebook is mainly of a geological nature, though it is important in revealing the extent of his scientific activities in Australia. Together with the Gessammelte Reise-Berichte it paints a vivid picture of the reception given Hochstetter, the Novara and its scientific corps during their visits to the colony in 1858 and 1859. When compiled and republished in 1885 the frontispiece read as follows (English translation):

THE COLLECTED TRAVEL LOG OF THE FRIGATE Novara

CIRCUMNAVIGATING THE GLOBE 1857-1859

BY FERDINAND v. HOCHSTETTER

Originally published with an introduction and epilogue

by V.v. Haardt and a heliogravure portrait of Ferdinand v. Hochstetter

and a survey map of the travel route.

Vienna 1885

Eduard Hölzel.


{The following English translation of Hochstetter's 'Collected Travel Log...' was taken from the original German by George Vladar of Canada during May 1995. Within the text, numbers in brackets thus [300] refer to the original pages from the 1885 edition.}

AUSTRALIA

Last leg of the journey between Shanghai & Sydney

Arrival in Port Jackson

Winds and weather seemed to have totally reversed since passing Cape Surville and leaving the Salamon Islands behind us.

For weeks - actually a full month - we had been waiting in vain for a fresh breeze, from north of the Salamon Islands, and now in one foul swoop the south-east trade winds appeared in full force and instead of sullen squally clouds we had pure clear skies. The south-easter soon blew so forcefully that the frigate was only able to proceed with reduced sail towards the south, close to the wind, and had to battle strenuously through the high seas which the stiff winds rolled against us. On 25 and 26 October the south-easter grew into a storm. We traveled with double-reefed top-sails and it almost seemed as if the end of this trip would be just as stormy as was the start in the China Sea. After a very disturbed night it was more calm on 27 October. We were situated in the latitude of the north-western tip of the New Caledonia coral reef, and now had to pass the dangerously coral reef dotted sea between New Caledonia and the coast of Australia. Commodore B.v. Wüllerstorf intended at first to traverse this portion of the sea along the open routes, via the west-coast of New Caledonia, but all attempts to battle the stormy south-easter and the high seas against us were in vain. Therefore the Commodore gave orders to stand awry at noon on 27 October, and with full sails hoisted we sailed before the wind, now coming from an east-south-easterly direction, travelling with rapid speed towards the west, in order to gain past the Bampton Reef by a more westerly route, which at 156 & 158 degrees east of Greenwich leads safely through the coral-reefs.

We expected to see the horse-shoe shaped Bampton Reef on the morning of the 28th, [299] but even from the top of the mast no breakers could be observed, however the calm seas which we quickly entered were distinct proof of the existence of the reef and that we were in its vicinity. The exact location of this reef was a very different one on the various charts - one indicating that we were exactly upon it, the second one that it was only four [nautical miles away], but by the third one, actually 14 nautical miles east of our position. The latter chart must have been right since from a 4 mile distance one must have seen the breakers from the mast, yet this would have been impossible to sight from 14 miles.

The winds, turning now more and more from south-east to east, were so favourable as to allow us to keep a direct course towards the south. We passed the latitude of Sandy Cape already on 30 October and were now able to steer in clear seas directly towards Sydney. On the same day we also passed the southern tropic. The winds continued turning and on 31 October and 1 November, with falling barometer and rain, they developed by and by from north, then north-west, then west and south-west, into finally a southerly. On 2 November all clouds suddenly seemed swept away. It became a beautiful, cloudless day, the wind again reversed from south-west to west and north-west, and again we saw the first albatrosses, greeted by us with great pleasure as old familiars. Air temperatures, steadily falling since the Salamon Islands, were now only between 15 and 16 degrees Rheamur (we were on the southern latitude of 28), caused us to rummage for more substantial clothing. We had spent ten full months in the tropics and this fine cool day in November reminded us of a splendid day of Spring in our homeland.

We sighted the Australian coast near Smoky Cape on 4 November, fresh easterly winds filled all of our sails, and doing 10 miles an hours we were nearing our goal. [300] On 5 November, around 2 p.m., we sighted land near Port Jackson and by 6 p.m. the frigate laid anchor between Pinchgut and Garden Island in the magnificent harbour of Port Jackson near Sydney. After a journey of 84 days, accomplishing 6256 nautical miles, we had happily reached our goal. During the whole voyage we had seen only one ship, an American clipper near the Marianas, and were really surprised not to find any sails in front of Port Jackson. Only when already close to the entry did we notice some steam-boats and small coastal vessels, hugging close to the coast.

I cannot describe the feeling of bliss treading firm soil underground after a long sea voyage, finding mail from home, being able to scan the latest newspapers, gorging on fresh fruit, milk and butter, and swiftly getting acclimatised to strangers who received the newcomer with friendliness and civility. Finally, Sydney seems an all out European city and we all had the impression of being once more in familiar circumstances. But I am also obliged to describe to you the joy, ney the sensational enthusiasm which the arrival of the long awaited Novara caused among the Germans in Sydney.

The Australische Deutsche Zeitung (the Australian German Gazette), published by J. Degotardi, a native of Graz, and sent to all of us graciously by the publisher, was full with news of the Novara and notice of a "General German Assembly on the occasion of the arrival of the k.k. (Imperial and Royal) Frigate Novara, discussing and advising on the festive reception."

"One must note," to quote from the invitation to this assembly, "that the whole undertaking of the "Novara Expedition" was solely devoted to German scientific purpose, [301] up to now unique of its kind, and that the efforts and sacrifice of these men of science cannot be more distinctly acknowledged than by joyous proclamation and attendance. This way we do not only honour the men of the Novara Expedition but also their most generous sponsors, the noble and diligent patrons, and all of science - in short our Fatherland and ourselves.

In all locations where the noble Novara arrived a most hearty welcome was afforded by all the educated elite, without the slightest difference of nationality. The local English scholars have already made preparations for their reception and we can only hope that the Germans, who have the most reason for a warm participation, will not lag behind, the more so because back home they have not heard much that is commendatory about the national endeavours of the local Germans."

A second article is directed towards "The Gentlemen of the Novara Expedition" as follows:

"Noble Sirs, we have taken notice of your arrival in Port Jackson with the most fervent pleasure and want to convey our hearty welcome on the shores of Australia. Be assured, most noble sirs, of the warmest empathy by the native German towards this splendid endeavour of the Novara Expedition and of our esteemed recognition of its hallowed productivity. The mighty thunder of your cannons will awaken the slumbering love for the Fatherland in many a German heart, and the positive image of your close manly alliance will generate renewed conviviality between Germans of this city."

On the morning of 6 November the British crown in New South Wales gave its greeting with the roar of cannons. The scientists left the ship, and on board preparations were soon made in order to bring the frigate to the government docks of Kakadu Island for necessary repairs. [302] Most likely the Imperial and Royal frigate will prolong its stay at Port Jackson until the end of this month.

Sojourn in Sydney

The Festivities

When last writing I mentioned at the end the friendly enthusiasm given by the Germans of Sydney in greeting the arrival of the Novara, and also the preparations for various festivities in which our compatriots could express their pleasure and participation. These feasting days are past and the Novara has shed her festive garment with which she shone during the last week, and is ready to sail at a moment's notice from the splendid Port Jackson in order to bring us to the friendly shores of New Zealand, to our veritable Antipodes.

I shall use this quiet Sunday [5 December], confining myself to my quarters in spite of the lure of splendid conditions, in order to describe, before leaving, the days just passed. If I do not write today you shall then receive news probably only a few months later, and I might presume that you are just as anxious to hear from us as we look forward with real longing for news from home.

The festivities, although planned a long time ahead, could only be realised after the frigate Novara had left the government docks of Kakadu Island. The Novara - the largest man of war ever to visit Port Jackson - was as well the largest ship to lie in dry-dock at the government docks, [303] and the English were appreciative of the praise and recognition by the commander of the frigate as to its exceptional facilities. The Novara emerged renewed and rejuvenated and would now be able to circumnavigate the globe again two times over.

On 23 November she took up her old anchoring position off Grotto [Garden] Island and commenced on the 24th a series of festivities with the Novara Ständchen, or the Novara Serenade. Instead of my own description I shall give you the report by the Australische Deutsche Zeitung:

The Serenade

The serenade, planned and arranged by the local German inhabitants for welcoming the Novara, took place on Wednesday evening [24 November]. It did not only meet expectations, but actually far exceeded them, and for a very long time will remain a happy and vibrant memory for both the gentlemen of the Novara as well as for the local Germans.

The fine and powerful steamer Washington, most generously supplied for the festive evening by Mitchell & Co., was decorated by the Germans with sprouting greenery and multi-coloured lanterns. A mighty transparency inscribed with "Willkommen" was draped across the middle of the ship, and a beautiful Austrian double-headed eagle featured as the reigning decoration. One had just begun to hoist it in its place of honour when an unexpected gust of wind seemed to put paid to this and cause our hearts to flutter in anxiety. This was well founded since the gusts increased in intensity up to constituting what is called a "Brickfielder" [304].

"Brickfielder" is the Sydney label of a south or south-easterly wind, of short duration, which occurs mostly on evenings after hot days, and results in the raising of the dust of the streets and of a hillock south of the town called "Brickfield", hence the name, thereby enveloping the whole city in dense clouds of dust. The "Brickfielder" characteristically indicates a change of weather. The southerly gusts of wind cause the sky to cloud over, and the previous hot days with clear skies are followed by cool rainy days.

This then was a very unwelcome guest, quite unexpected after the total lull, and putting German patience and forbearance to severe test. Brute force could not eliminate this intruder, therefore one left it to play its games and tried with endless patience to rectify the damage done. At least this brought us refreshing coolness after another burning hot day (109 degrees in the sun), somewhat pacifying the indignant crowd.

It was past 8 p.m. when all the participants of the "Ständchen" (serenade), about 300 strong, where assembled on board the Washington. Truly a gratifying, ennobling moment of universal friendliness. Germans from the centre and all corners and ends of their large homeland were united as brothers. No longer Austrians or Prussians, nor Bavarians or Saxons or Hanovarians, just Germans and nothing but Germans, all united in this deserving cause, welcoming the Novara, demonstrating their love for the common Fatherland, and honouring therefore together with the gentlemen of the Novara, also the natural sciences and arts, so well represented by the noble men of the Novara Expedition. [305]

The assembly was permeated by the most exulted of spirits, remarkably enlivened by the related sons of Albion as well as a circle of beautiful ladies. All this charming humanity was bound by a wreath of coloured lamps between fresh boughs, while our popular German choir as well as a bevy of singers were posted on a high platform erected over the [Washington's] wheel-house.

The anchor was lifted and with the first rhythmic beats of the wheels the orchestra started a forceful, inspiring march and the ship edged out from Circular Quay into the wide expanses of Port Jackson, towards the proud Novara. However when the "Brickfielder" noticed that people made derisive fun of his whistling, he recommenced with his dirty tricks and at the first turning of the ship maliciously extinguished a row of lights, at the second turning the other one, and finally the illumination for the band and the singers, making us sit in deep darkness, the "Brickfielder" triumphant. Yet the indomitable German humour was victorious. The lamps were re-kindled, extinguished, and re-lit, with the "Brickfielder" finally unable to keep pace and forced to leave some lights in peace. Soon the full chords of the music intermingled with the enthusiasm of the crowd, the whizzing and whistling of the wind, and the hissing and detonation of the spent rockets and other fireworks, while Bengal lights magically illuminated the colourful motley of the crowd aboard the ship and the moving waters.

After they had died down, the surroundings were once more engulfed in profound darkness, again allowing the lights of heaven as well as the shimmer of the earthly illumination to come to the fore that much more lively. [306] Now one could see the lights of the ship's lanterns on the extreme tops of the masts of the Novara and soon distinguish the whole dark body of that fine ship. One tried to protect the lamps from the wind as well as throwing light on the banners when approaching, which was successful as far as circumstances would allow.

The Novara was circled and finally the anchor lowered as near as respectful distance would permit. Bengal lights suddenly lit up the mighty side of the Novara turned towards the Washington, and brought into sight not only the gentlemen assembled on the deck but also several boats filled with people at its side. A boat from the Novara approached and gathered the members of the committee charged with delivering an address, while the music of the excellent Novara band reached the Washington in friendly counterpoint. There in the meantime the deputation consisting of the gentlemen Hetzer, Frerichs, Jansen, Kohn, Reiling and Gelbrecht were received most cordially by Consul Kirchner and introduced to the Commodore one by one. After this ceremony Mr. Gelbrecht read the address to be delivered in clear and decisive tones, as follows:

"To the Commander, the officers, and scientists of the Imperial and Royal Austrian man of war Novara:

Dear Sirs, We the undersigned German inhabitants of Sydney convey a most hearty welcome at the occasion of your felicitous arrival. Please accept this "welcome" as an outpouring of our most esteemed sympathy with your tremendous undertaking on behalf of the benefit of all science. We are as Germans especially proud vis-a-vis our English compatriots that not only a man like Dr. Leichhardt will live on in the hearts of all colonists, [307] but also that even the greatest of German monarchs have evinced so high an interest in the arts and science.

So far from our Fatherland we can only demonstrate our love and devotion towards it by transplanting German customs and habits, and wherever fate might take us always be conscious of our heritage when Germans might cross our lives.

This constant memory of our far country of birth, a holy testimony of our extreme reverence for German art and civilisation is manifested by today's demonstration, and may you consider this expression of our emotions as a most promising bloom on the German tree-of-life, which we have planted on the shores of the quiet ocean on Australian soil.

Permit us to express that the furnishings of the Novara expedition for this world famous voyage has filled our hearts with admiration for Austria's young monarch and his Imperial Highness Archduke Max, who as well as their illustrious ancestor Joseph, headed the German princes so brilliantly as patrons of the arts and sciences. Be assured of our admiration for your tenacity and courage which you, honoured Sirs, have evinced during this long voyage, fraught with difficulties and danger, and let us on this occasion render homage to the men and lights of German science, who together with our world famous and revered compatriot Alexander von Humboldt, have given great support by providing materials and instruments for your undertaking.

May the success of the Novara be such as to fulfil your most daring aspirations. The records of this circumnavigation of the globe shall be inscribed by history's stylus to be handed down to posterity and be regarded even in the far future as proof of what German affinity for the arts and sciences is capable of, to the benefit of all mankind.

[308] Once more accept the assurance of the most heartfelt reverence of the undersigned." (Followed by 130 signatures).

This address was now handed to the Commodore who received it with obvious pleasure, replying with these words:

"Honoured Sirs, Let me thank you for the honour and respect which you have shown to the Novara Expedition and to myself, which we are privy to at present. Your delicate attention has touched me very much and it gives me great pleasure to be able to receive you and bid you welcome on this German soil as a representative of Austria. It will be incumbent upon me, with very special honour, to convey to my most gracious sovereign the Emperor and his exalted Imperial Highness Archduke Ferdinand Max, Superior Commander of the Fleet, your warm and heartfelt best wishes which you have expressed for our common Fatherland, as well as for this venture, the head of which I represent.

Again let me repeat my sincere thanks for this patriotic demonstration which will surely find a stalwart echo in all the hearts in the Fatherland, since it conveys here too in Australia that unity which is the main goal of the Imperial Government as German world power."

After this reply Mr Gelbrecht gave a shout from the Novara and now thunderous hurrahs for the Novara were sounded from the Washington, followed by the choir with "What is the Fatherland of the German?", sung with so much warmth and force that in spite of the wind this could be heard on board of the Novara quite distinctly.

The deputation made their farewells and returned to the Washington while the Novara band played on, where Mr Gelbrecht in the name of the Commodore [309] profusely thanked all the participants and members of the expedition for all the honours received. The music on board of the Novara had ended and now the singers intoned the march of honour, "Sound off, festive hymn!", to which Mr Süssmilch had penned the following appropriate verses:

"Let us give praise to men of worth,
who are to science pledged;
who gladly have left home and hearth
for brave deeds now are privileged.
A toast to precious Fatherland,
may it last evermore!
and looking on its far-off sons
let pride and joy then soar!"

From the Novara, with full force, the magnificent Austrian National Anthem could then be heard, mightily enlivening the eagle on the [Washington's] banner, floating away in the direction of the Novara, released and supported by the relentless winds of its confines; however his power of flight was soon spent and he tried safety by swimming - luckily the boat caught up with him and saved him from the forces of the destructive elements.

Firm and solemn the hymn "May God Protect" resounded from the chests of the singers and from the instruments of the German band for the third time. In the meantime a brilliant fireworks display went off the tip of the mast of the Washington, as well as bright rockets from both ships coursing in wide arches through the night, allowing the blinding artificial flames to illuminate in ghostly fashion from time to time, ships, men and the sea.

Thus was passed another half hour through which the musical competition between the singers and the instrumentalists on one side, and the choir on the Novara on the other, kept ceaselessly on with music of much variety and breast-swelling song, [310] delighting ear and heart and loosening limbs. It goes without saying that the singers, most at the mercy of the bothersome winds, now and then took a hearty draft from one or the other full bottle, in order to encourage their throats for new displays.

The hour of good-byes had finally arrived. Once more the Novara was greeted by a joyous choir while the anchor was lifted; thunderous hurrahs were sounded for the leave-taking and under full speed and merry clamour the strong Washington sailed away with its strange burden.

This festive evening almost cost some lives. As they were singing the "Jolly Life" by Mangold, a shrill cry of panic came up from the waters, abruptly bringing the voices to a halt. The cause of this was looked for and a manned boat passing close to the steamer was seen. It was brought into a dangerously threatening position by a sudden twist of the steamer and only by miracle did its occupants escape the fate of being jettisoned. Some ladies on deck fainted from fright, while it was men - the German captains of the Armin and Anna Lange, and Herr Consul Müller - who had given the cries of distress. One could have escaped this alarm by having boarded the Washington instead of trusting feeble boats during a dark and stormy night. It was sheer luck to escape with just a fright!

After half past ten the steamer docked at its berth in the Circular Quay, prior to which the music had ended this part of the festive evening with "God save the Queen." A threefold enthusiastic hurrah was sounded for the firm Mitchell & Co. which had so generously provided the steamer free of charge, [311] another for the brave captain, and lastly one for the ladies who had graced this feast. One then left with the lamps saved from the storm and fond memories in the heart, not for one's flat but for Parker's Family Hotel, where in the inviting dance-hall and behind crowded, richly appointed tables, one the more so gave defiance to the malicious "Brickfielder" and just let him go on with his blustery whistling to his heart's content. Thus was passed a wonderful, genuinely German festive evening, the memory of which will not fade very soon.

I need hardly add that this truly national demonstration, a welcome after the good old German fashion of music and song, also made a very special impact on the English, who had never experienced anything like it in Sydney before. The Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney's main newspaper, gave an extensive report of this feast, prefaced by long reflections about the various customs and usages of civilised nations. Englishmen or Americans, in the opinion of the reporter, would arrange an enormous dinner for the purpose of mutual recognition; the French would spend the most colossal amount of gunshot possible, hold military parades, maybe arrange a ball; the Germans though, the most musical of nations, would simply greet each other with song and music.

But this time the Germans were not just content with songs and music. On the next day, following the "Serenade", a solemn festive dinner in honour of the Novara expedition was arranged by the members of the German Club in Sydney, at their spacious and friendly locale. There were about seventy guests present. The premises was richly decorated with the flags of the different German states, whilst in between were the portraits of His Majesty the Emperor and Her Majesty the Empress of Austria, surrounded with laurel leaves. A German orchestra played, while one devoted oneself to the pleasures of the table, [312] but had to fall silent when the importance of the festive evening was underlined with enthusiastic toasts.

The first one, proposed by Consul Kirchner, was dedicated to "the Queen", under whose mighty protection the Germans of Australia were enjoying a much desired freedom; the second one, also proposed by Consul Kirchner, was in honour of His Serene Majesty the Emperor Franz Joseph and to his Imperial Highness the Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian. Both were received with ardent fervour and the second one replied to by the Commodore of the Novara with the following effusive words:

"Permit me, gentlemen, to express my sincere thanks for your heartfelt homage which you just rendered to the health of my most gracious Emperor and Sovereign and to the illustrious members of the Imperial family most near to him. Representing this German world power I appreciate such sentiments voiced by those Germans living in Australia under the protection of an English reign which has familiar ties to us. Let me reply to your flattering convictions and invite you to empty your glasses in honour of a German man whose close ties to the English crown will make relations between Germany and England yet more cordial and close - homage to Queen Victoria's illustrious Prince Consort - Prince Albert!"

This caused Mr. Frerich to propose the health of the Commodore, the officers, the navy and the scientific expedition, which again was responded to by the Commodore herewith:

"Permit me gentlemen, to rise once more to express my most appreciative thanks for your homage, by which you have just covered me with honours.

I am most pleased to find myself, far away from our mutual German homeland, under honest compatriots and am happy to be able to return your warm greetings in the German language with German sentiments.

[313] Since I have had the honour to be appointed to lead this expedition, I considered it one of its functions to demonstrate to the world what could be achieved with joint effort, according to our Emperor's concept, by German diligence, German endurance and German will-power. All of us joined hands in order to fulfil this purpose, and all of us made it our most noble task, as much as our endeavours were able to, to meet the expectations of our illustrious monarch, our exalted imperial chief of the Novara, and of our Fatherland.

All of us are fired by the same desire to show to all the inhabitants of this globe, that we belong to a people who are willing and able to partake of all the attainments of science, even on the wide oceans. Whether we really have achieved our intended purpose, have delivered the desired results, has to be left up to the judgement of those men - our great Humboldt himself in the vanguard - who are our masters before whom we bow our heads in reverence. But unity shall be our watchword, we shall labour co-jointly and most seriously strive for our goals.

Therefore let me lend words to our wishes for you to act with equal convictions in order to reach similar intents and may we never forget how kindly you have received and welcomed us with German straightforwardness. Please join me in a vociferous toast to the well-being and advancement of all the Germans in Australia."

After the health of all the assembled Germans was drunk to, Mr. Michaelis stood up and asked for the glasses to be filled, and spoke with warmth and eloquence of the merits of German men serving science, to whose well-being he proposed a special toast. Rising, Dr. Scherzer replied to this:

"Honoured Sirs, it feels good to the German traveller to perceive the extensive spread of his compatriots in all the lands of the earth and to recognise the ennobling influence [314] of the German nation in the cultural history of mankind. There is hardly a spot on God's fine earth where Germans are not acting as cultivators, merchants, missionaries, doctors, lawyers, industrialists, engineers, etc., and thereby constituting a large and respected part of the populace. However, as important is their social and moral influence, as little is their political. Is it not, for example, a very odd thing that out of 5 million Germans, merchants, doctors and such like in important posts, who are living in the United States, and which country benefits by it, not a single one sits in Congress or graces an important position in legislature or the law.

The reasons for this can easily be explained, their roots go deep and remind us of the eternal malignancy of the German, the lack of unity, of a forceful and thorough togetherness! This divisiveness of the German in foreign parts will not be eliminated as long as the same back home keeps on spreading and surviving.

Here, where we have been received with such honest German generosity, I declare with great pride that no German government has made such efforts and contributions during these last years to the unity of Germany by melding the material and social interests of the different German states, than has the rejuvenated Austria! It has been the imperial reign which has tried, with all the powers at their disposal, to establish a custom-union; she also made the German commercial laws her own, vying for, and partly already accomplishing, the unity of measures and weights, that splendid symbol of the solidarity of nations. It was she who, while by no means in the best of financial conditions, supported generously and selflessly German trade during the recent crisis, as if fulfilling a duty, and who is furthermore attempting co-jointly with Bavaria to put German emigration on a sound and solid basis, in order that Germany will concern itself more than before about the fate of German emigrants.

[315] And surely it is not the least task of the Novara expedition to inquire about the conditions of German emigrants in the countries she visits, to get to know ways and means by which German trade and German industries can be opened up to new outlets, thereby creating new markets.

Yes gentlemen, considering the true German sentiments which inspire these men at the pinnacle of the imperial government, the moment cannot be far when even the lowliest German emigrant in the farthest corners of the globe will remember with pride and be strengthened by the protection of a German power, even if far from his homeland. And be assured of her vigorous participation when it comes to protect and keep up his just rights.

Therefore gentlemen, permit me to invite you to drain your glasses to the unity, the might and stature of our collective German fatherland -

Wherever German tongues converse,
all is right in God's universe."

Mr. G. Frauenfeld replied with many words of thanks for the extraordinary civility by which the members of the scientific commission were stoutly supported from all sides in their endeavours, and finished with a toast to German science.

This was followed by a solemn and serious moment. Dr. Ferdinand Hochstetter reminded us of the merits of German science which have also accrued in Australia, and how proud we must be that among the names of those men following their goal to scientifically explore the interior of Australia with self-scarifying devotion, the name of a German tops the list, Dr. Leichhardt, whom the colonists named as their best friend [316] and whose fate, in spite every effort by noble fellow-men, is still shrouded in mystery. Most probably though, he has died a martyr's death in the service of science. Dr. Hochstetter asked the assembly to rise in silence in memory of our unfortunate compatriot Dr. Leichhardt.

This solemn occasion was followed with a call for cheers by the Commodore in honour of the revered Alexander v. Humboldt:

"We have already drunk numerous toasts to the health of a German who has earned abiding merits on behalf of this colony, Australia. Let us now also empty a glass to the health of a German man whose name must exhort us to the unity of our German Fatherland, a man who belongs to no nation but only to all of Germany. I give you Alexander v. Humboldt!"

This toast was received with unmitigated pleasure. Dr. Jonasson also chose the eternally beautiful theme of the "Fatherland", and with his passionate speech enticed the audience to spontaneous participation. Mr. Wallach also proposed cheers for Australia. The Commodore of the Novara then rose for the final time with this toast:

"Gentlemen - While on the one hand I am delighted over the progress of the German element in this colony, I can nevertheless not omit to render my most sincere thanks to the English inhabitants of New South Wales, which this richly progressive colony has bestowed on us. I gladly discharge this pleasant obligation of giving thanks, expressing my fervent wishes for the well-being and development of this marvelous colony, with this one cumulative toast - cheers to the illustrious Governor-General of Australia, His Excellency Sir William Denison!"

Thus ran to a close another festive evening which shall be forever enshrined in our memory. [317] In the meantime the latest European mail had brought us news of an event which caused in our hearts the same enthusiasm, the same jubilation, the same involvement as had been noted in all the newspapers from all the provinces of our Fatherland - the birth of a crown-prince, Archduke Rudolph. Austria's joy reverberated at the other end of the world in Port Jackson when, [on Saturday, 27 November], the thunder of the cannons of the Novara announced this happy event on the coast of Australia. A 21 gun salute in the morning, the same at noon and again at sundown, informed the inhabitants of Sydney of a splendid feast on deck of the Novara, with the solemn and uplifting music of a Te-Deum, the whole crew at attention, and a Déjeuner attended by a few selected guests. In the morning the officers of the frigate Iris conveyed their congratulations and proved their participation by flagging their ship, as well as a 21 gun salute at noon, the example of which was followed equally by the just arriving Victoria.

The religious and military celebration preceded a festive ball on board of the Novara on 30 November, to which the whole elite of Sydney, about 300 strong, was invited. This festivity was the most resplendent of our whole trip. The Novara could no longer be recognised - the man of war was transformed into a veritable faerie-castle and I must admit that I was no more astonished by the splendour and exquisite taste of the decorations, executed under the tutelage of our revered Commander Baron v. Pöck, than the population of Sydney who had never seen anything compared to this floating feast in Port Jackson - but let the Australische Zeitung give you this report [318]:

The Ball on board of the Novara

On Tuesday past an event occurred which can rightly be described as never having happened in Australia before in a similar manner. All the arrangements were designed with such taste and artistic sensibility as is only the prerequisite of the German and deserves the particular admiration of those who can really gauge the space-limitations inherent in a man of war, transforming the gun-decks into a splendiferous ball-room, as well as arranging accommodations for drawing-, dining-, dressing-, smoking-, and gaming-quarters. Everything which was not movable - steering wheel, compass, capstan - was turned into lovely arrangements of flowers, pleasing to the eye. The walls and ceiling of the artificial ball-rooms were ornamented with colourful pennants and flags, proud armorial crests and a sweet smelling wilderness of luxuriant greenery, interspersed with wreaths, shimmering with Flora's children's hues. From the delicate lap of a true chalice of flowers wells the silvery beam of a shell-like fountain, entwined with ivy and in the spray of the droplets were reflected the lights of chandeliers formed from glittering pistols. Within this earthly realm of the fairies were beating hundreds of hearts, the heaving bosoms of the rhapsodic dancers, and the beauties of which Australia's metropolis was justified to be proud of.

How the rows of dancers swayed and swirled, were enlivened and born along by the enchanted melodies of Strauss, Lanner and Labitzky, in joyous union harmonically entwined. How easy it was to ignore to be away from home, ignore future and past, and only live in the delicious present.

The brave contingent of soldiers and sailors partook of the festivities. [319] They too created a green and flowering dance-hall and, moved by the same familiar music of the muses, forgot in brotherly embrace the ardours and difficulties of their profession. Even if they did not have pretty girls to dance with, they that much more fervently clasped their brave companions to their stalwart hearts. The easy-going Austrian danced with the fiery Italian, the melodious Bohemian with the song-filled Styrian. And the dear old cannons in the far-off darkness put their hollow heads together, murmuring mysteriously while looking so silently into this night at sea, not knowing what was happening! And the modest German-Australian guest in this festive dance-hall, unaccustomed to this brilliant glow, thought in his heart:

Here in this hall of glorious splendour
just close your eyes, and realize
this is no time to wonder!

and fled to the cozy smoking room where in company of other good dance-shy compatriots he could enjoy happy hours, too long deprived of, and with full glass and accustomed chit-chat banish, in the secretive darkness of tobacco fumes, the hard knocks of life for quite a while.

The company remained together until next morning, and when the ardent farewell-cheers were given to the Novara, dawn had already lit up the sky.

It can be no wonder that after this round of festivities the Novara was the talk of Sydney. Performances were given at the Prince of Wales Theatre under the patronage of the Commodore and the officers of His Majesty's frigate Novara. In enormous letters on the play-bills at every street-corner [320] the Novara was listed and tumultuous applause greeted every actor who could tell a good Novara joke. At a fancy dress ball, given during our stay for the mayor of Sydney, it was the "Austrians" who won the hearts of the beautiful Australian ladies. During a concert of the Philharmonic Association it was the playing of a Viennese, Madame Rawack, née Mauthner, who enthralled all the listeners.

What exactly was it, declared the Australische Zeitung, which suddenly caused this amicable tumult among the circle of listeners? Mme. Rawack had gladly assented, through her participation, to grace the evening, and it was her appearance which gave rise to this enthusiasm. How she drew all eyes with her charming sight, this blessed artist! And how one listened to the sounds conjured up from the instrument by her masterly hands.

She played an arrangement by Döhler, combining the melodies from "Anna Bolena" and anyone at all familiar with the Muses cannot help but realise the encompassing beauty of this composition nor fail to realise the technical difficulties which the artist's hands faced. But what of technical difficulties under the hands of our artist - the uninitiated heard only the most musical play without the complications! Just because Mme. Rawack was able to overcome all this, since this rich treasure-trove soon was already enshrined in her memory, becoming entirely hers, she was able to discover the composer's most private thoughts and let them resound in the hearts of her audience. It is this which makes her the consummate artist and it does not need any further enumeration.

The harmonic introduction, [321] the pleasing theme, the artfully elegant Fantasia were all dealt with the same artistry and with unsurpassable virtuosity. The ear was hardly able to come to rest among the sonorous accords, charming melodies, giddy trills and dauntless runs, and yet it was all done with wonderfully lucid clarity, so characteristic of our player, and we find total peace and satiation.

After the last chords sheer endless applause held forth, the more vehement since we had listened in such breathless concentration, giving accolades to this renowned artist. No doubt she found the best reward in the admiring homage to her virtuosity by her compatriots which we noticed in her closest proximity. It was to their hearts that she must have lavished these dearest of remembrances of Australia and the gentlemen will not fail to extol the well earned praises of their compatriot after their safe return.

A German photographer, Mr. [Wilhelm] Hetzer, arranged a photographic tableau of the members of the Novara expedition and one is told that copies of certain portraits are very much in demand by the ladies of Sydney.

All this should convey to you that time had come for us to leave this "Capua of the South", if the Novara were not to share the fate of the frigate Iris, with three rich Australian heiresses, just recently engaged, in tow.

The scene will change dramatically when after a few hours already we might be outside the "Heads", again rolling on the waves of the Pacific Ocean. By then they might well bake Novara croissants and manufacture Novara sausages - but whichever way, it will be German tradesmen who shall profit from the arrival of the first German man of war in Australia. [322] However even without all this Australian humbug, we are certainly assured that the memory of the Novara will be an unalterable one in Port Jackson. I would still have to add long lists of festive dinners, given by His Excellency the Governor General, Sir William Denison and the cream of Sydney's notability for the officers of the Novara, but now during quiet hours of leisure at sea during our passage to New Zealand, must finish this recounting of feasting and make a promise to report also on the results of our scientific endeavours, lest you should think that we might have forgotten everything else over the delights of the Australian Capua. Therefore I am already able to assuage you and report that a shipment of about 20 crates of important content - a collection of Australian objects dealing with the natural sciences and ethnography - is ready with our consul, Mr. Kirchner, to travel to Europe via the next sailing-ship.

This will also prove that Duke Paul of Württemberg, the renowned illustrious traveller, collector, and researcher of natural science, had spared something for us when he left Sydney a few days before our arrival. He had heard about the arrival of the Novara whilst in Melbourne, and had welcomed the expedition most warmly by a letter from there. Duke Paul left for Europe by the same steam-boat which also carried our own last mail, and he is said to bring along a very sumptuous and interesting Australian collection. All of us very much regret not to have had the pleasure to greet this famous traveller on board of the Novara.

I have just been informed that the steamer has been commissioned to tow the Novara towards the open sea on Tuesday morning, 7 December. This will mean that we probably shall celebrate Xmas and New Year in New Zealand and it is to be hoped that all of us will see in the New Year in good health and good spirits, leading us back to our own shores.

[323] Our day of departure was set for 7 December. Consul Kirchner wanted our farewell to be very affecting. He therefore arranged a ball for the last evening and we danced right up into early morning. Only a few hours later we danced again but on a stormy ocean.

After two entirely wind-still days, on the morning of 7 December a brisk southerly wind arose, beneficial for our exit. The anchor was raised and just as swiftly as we had arrived we had also left. Australia had already vanished behind the horizon by noon, the southern winds had grown into a storm, and the frigate was put to the test to show that her caulkers, carpenters and sail-makers had done their jobs well. This sudden change of scene was by no means pleasant, but after only two days the wind and sea were calm again and we were enjoying the most clement and agreeable weather, sailing with good progress towards our next destination, New Zealand.

As I have already sent reports from Sydney about the festivities in honour of the arrival of the Imperial and Royal Frigate Novara, I shall add further news concerning our stay in Sydney.

The extraordinary courtesy extended to us by the population of Sydney, the civility with which the English government of New South Wales supported the aims of our expedition, the rich and valuable contributions to the Novara collections by public officials and institutions, as well as by the private sector, scientists and lay-men, all these united efforts to make our stay pleasurable and further the goals of this Imperial scientific expedition, will make [324] every one of us remember these days on Australia's coast with the greatest of satisfaction.

"How do you like Sydney? What do you think of this country?" I have been asked often, followed by the questioner, without waiting for an answer: "Is not Port Jackson the finest harbour in the world? Is not the view superb? Consider the wonderful Norfolk spruce, the shady Moreton fig-tree, the beautiful, opulent gardens with oranges, lemons, apricots and all other European species of fruit, the graceful country-houses, luxuriant palaces, and also the Australian "bush" covering the naked sandstone cliffs, exactly as during the days of Cook. Here the harbour with many inlets, filled with ships and steamers of all sizes and descriptions, and here you have Sydney, a small version of London. Just about everything you might desire, you will find here. We have it all, also railways and the telegraph. Besides this there is our climate, never Winter but just Spring and Summer, and take notice how healthy our children look, how beautiful our girls, how stalwart our men. Is this then not truly an earthly paradise?"

I could not answer with "no" when thus questioned. Even if not everything filled me with as much enthusiasm as shown by the indigenous Australian, speaking with pride and love for his native land, I nevertheless was astonished to a high degree regarding the enormous progress and the fast development of this young country, and had to admire the diligence and vitality of what had been achieved in just two generations. I shall gladly believe in Australia's bright future, should coming ages retain the same zeal and love for their country, and maintain the energy and potency which had graced the first generation.

Today Sydney has a population of 70,000, and together with its suburbs of Wulumulu, Pyrmont, Balmain, and others has nearly the size of one of the great cities of Europe. In the thoroughfare "Georges-Street", [325] one could easily imagine oneself to be in London. Only 30 years ago this was a row of wooden huts and now it is a series of stone palaces. The excellent building material of the region, sandstone masonry, found its full potential in the erection of fine churches, banks, the Governor's Mansion and many others, lavish palaces built in the finest of styles, even if the "Hyde Park" hardly merits its grand name, being a treeless meadow in the middle of town; but in contrast the botanical garden, the Domain, and Lady Macquarie's Chair afford delightful walks. It is to be regretted that instead of melodic bird-song, the ear-numbing cacophony of millions of green cicadas renders the air from early morning to late night.

Sydney is well served by gas and water-works and everything pertaining to ease traffic in a metropolis - busses, cabs, steamers. While their theatres so far have not surpassed mediocrity, they excel in hospitals, educational facilities and public libraries. The Australian Museum holds excellent collections of natural history and ethnography of Australia and the Pacific Isles, and already the space is too limited and the staff too small for its upkeep.. The foundation of a new and larger museum is now being discussed. We visited the Museum frequently and must praise the obliging courtesy of secretary Angas and curator Wall. We owe thanks to the generosity of the authorities for very valuable stocks of their duplicates.

An astronomical observatory tied to a meteorological and magnetic installation is in the process of being established, since the former observatory of Paramatta has ceased to exist; a splendid university has just been erected.

[326] The focal point of the scientific efforts of the colony are two scientific societies, both presided over by His Excellency the Governor General, Sir W.T. Denison. These are the Philosophical Society of New South Wales and the Society for Horticulture and Land-Development. A joint journal of both societies, the Sydney Magazine of Science and Art, is published in monthly installments. It was very exiting for us to personally make the acquaintance of so many men of science, for years actively involved in the observation and exploration of Australia. There was much to be discussed, to examine, and to compare in the excellent private collections of the Governor Sir W. Denison, Mr. W. Macleay, Reverend W.B. Clarke, Dr. G. Benett, and Dr. Roberts.

The days just vanished with what had to be done and seen in Sydney proper and its surroundings, and only very few days were left for farther excursions. Railways and steamers trafficking daily along the coast in a northern as well as southern direction, as well as regular mail-connections, convey the traveller to even the farthest regions of the colony. While the Commodore, together with numerous of my colleagues, sojourned in a southerly direction via Campelton, towards the thickly wooded, and rich with game regions of Illawara, I journeyed in a northerly direction to the basin of the Hunter River and the coalfields of Newcastle, returning very gratified with abundant collected bounty.

How reluctantly one departs from a coast where still so much is left which one had wished to see and examine. I had always hoped to find the time for the Blue Mountains, and to visit the goldfields around Bathurst, but had to settle for the sights of the "gold-nuggets" exhibited by the lucky finders in the windows of the jewellery stores in Georges Street, together with the interesting news printed daily by the [327] newspapers.

The old goldfields constantly maintain their rich yields. Statistics list for the year 1858, January till the end of September, 182,092 ounces of gold, delivered by monthly escorts from the colony of New South Wales to the Royal Mint in Sydney. During our stay in Sydney an amount of 1800 ounces of gold, worth 5000 pound sterling, was found in the western districts. These finds raise the ever new hope in hundreds of people to be so equally lucky. The account of the opening up of a newly discovered Eldorado, in the north on the Fitzroy River near Port Curtis, caused no less than 10,000 people from the colony Victoria and New South-Wales to emigrate. This enormous flow of people into a region with no settlers and no means of finding shelter nor livelihood causes dreadful misery. Individuals had sold their goods and chattels, not just for half its value but for a fourth or fifth, in order to purchase the necessary "digger" equipment and to afford the price of the fare, leaving behind secure paying businesses and employment, speculating for swift fortunes of gold.

This September the streets of Sydney and Melbourne were teeming with gold-thirsty crowds, heavily laden with blankets and mattresses, vessels, hoes and shovels, racing breathlessly to where the tickets were sold and then for the ships, leading to Eldorado. But what was the news in October? A horde of people, lawless and without order, duped in their hopes, now stood exposed to an unbearable heat, unprotected without shelter or sustenance, without the means for a return, without the possibility of other employment, in a far and foreign country separated from their helpless wives and children, since the goldfields had proven not profitable. In all directions, [328] one could see men offer tools, costing many pounds, for a few shilling. Wagons could have been loaded with new picks, shovels, tin-pans and tools of all descriptions. The whole route of the supposed goldfields, up to the landing points of the ships, was strewn with implements, forced to be discarded by sore feet under the heat of the sun, to ease the fatiguing march, and again the people flocked in relentless and excessive haste to the ships, loaded to the gills.

Only the energetic action of the government, sending provisions to lead the so dreadfully disappointed back, prevented a larger tragedy. Once again the district is barren and forsaken and the city of tents, Rockhampton, which suddenly sprang to life, has reverted to the one original wooden hut. This in short is the run of the latest gold-fever which had affected the inhabitants of Australia. It is remarkable that even the Chinese now find their way to Australia in order to try their luck with digging for gold. They are said to have succeeded where the Europeans, for lack of sufficient yield, had long departed. In New South Wales one already has counted 12,000 to 15,000 Chinese, in the colony of Victoria about 40,000. Many of these "sons of heaven" make their good fortune and even find European women, mostly of Irish descent, but in the vicinity of Moreton Bay the first case is supposed to have happened of a German girl marrying a Chinese. All this in spite of severe restrictive laws, since one fears their extensive spread, or, as an Anglo-Saxon remarked to me, in order to keep the Australian race pure.

German immigrants are very much preferred and if one were to ask an English farmer why he favours German labour [329] over his own compatriots, his consistent answer would be that he finds them to be more diligent and reliable and that they would not run off to the goldfields. The English government has recently occupied itself in some ways with German emigration, caused by a petition of German settlers, pointing to many ills on board of ships carrying German emigrants. By far larger than the number of Germans in New South Wales are the ones in the colony of Victoria, and in South Australia they total nearly one seventh of the whole population. One of the new Melbourne journals reports on emigration to the colony of Victoria which can be taken to pertain to all of Australia: "The development of the colony up to now was severely hampered by the fact that emigrants could not easily attain possession of land, unlike in Canada or the United States. This obstacle however is to be removed by the government instituting a law, which will enable the emigrant to buy land for cultivation at a pound sterling an acre. For scientists, academics and artists, like in any just evolving country, there is a need only when their talents can be utilised for a special purpose."

An accomplished portrait or landscape artist, for example, should be able to do enormously well, but "the farmer, the artisan, the shepherd, gardener, carpenter, mason, railway worker or just the daily jobber are the most serviceable to the colony. Therefore it is this class which is the most sought after and will always be, though it now and then occurs that by happen-stance an unexpected number of newcomers arrive, many of whom cannot decide to proceed towards the interior of the country, but prefer to linger aimlessly in the harbours, causing even in this category a temporary lack of employment and actual distress."

[330] Among the good advice ensuing, by all means the most important is: "Anyone willing to leave Germany in order to settle here should attempt to familiarise himself with the English language; every single word is worth a shilling."

Melbourne, the capital of the colony of Victoria, is generally regarded as the 'non plus ultra' of Australia. Even in Sydney one hears unanimous praise of its stature and wealth, the singularly rapid flowering of the city, and the energetic industriousness of its inhabitants, but we were especially pleased to learn that German science is flourishing and highly revered there. Dr. Ferdinand Müller, the botanist, is the universally esteemed director of the local botanical and zoological gardens. His untiring activities have made him one of the premier luminaries of this city. Another German national, Professor Neumayer, commissioned a year ago by His Majesty the King of Bavaria to make explorations in Australia contributing to further knowledge of the true nature of the earth's magnetic properties, is at present the director of the magnetic observatory in Victoria. May German science, immortalised in Australia through our unfortunate compatriot Dr. Leichhardt, continue to expand and prosper ever and ever more!

I do not want to close my report about Sydney without mentioning the indigenous natives, even if only briefly. This unfortunate race of men, unable to become civilised, either on their own or by means of outside influence, seems irredeemably destined to vanish from the face of the earth. Leading unstable lives of vagabondage and mendicancy, now and then some of the "Black fellows" even reach Sydney, but the scattered remnants of the tribes, originally indigenous to this location, gather in the city in large numbers around Xmas and the Queen's birthday, [331] when the government donates clothing and sundry other useful items.

The former king of "Botany Bay" however, an ancient man with grizzled hair and beard, and lame of limb, sits begging in the dust before the door of the richest man in Australia. This man had given him clothing, shelter and food for his remaining years, but nevertheless there he sits, exacting tribute from this land rich with gold, which in ancient pride he still claims as his own, by begging for small copper coins from passers-bye. What might his thought be - as to once, long ago, and now - the old king of Botany Bay?

Bibliography

The following references relate to Ferdinand von Hochstetter's geological research in Australia and New Zealand during 1858-9, however items of a general biographical nature are also included. A complete catalogue of his published work is to be found in F.v. Heger (1884).

Anon., 'Österreicher als Erforscher der Erde - Ferdinand Ritter von Hochstetter', Österreichische Hochschulzeitung, 1 Janner 1956, Seite 4.

Argus [newspaper], Melbourne, 18 October - 19 November 1859.

Berger, F., 'Ferdinand von Hochstetter. A famous son of Esslingen', Esslinger Zeitung, 30 December 1970, 9.

Branagan, D.F., Geology and Coal Mining in the Hunter Valley 1791-1861, Newcastle Public Library, 1972, 72.

Carlé , Walter, 'Ferdinand Ritter von Hochstetter: ein beruehmter geologe des letzen Jahrhunderts aus schwaebischem Stamm' {Ferdinand Ritter von Hochstetter: a celebrated geologist of the last century, of Swabian origin}, Jahresheft für Gesellschaft Naturkundliches in Würtemburg, 1980, 135, 145-66.

----, Carlé 's Biography of Ferdinand von Hochstetter, translated from German by C.A. Fleming, L. O. Kermode, J. Northcote-Bade & K. B. Spörli, Geological Society of New Zealand, Miscellaneous Publication No. 40, 1988, 24p.

Elder, J.R., The Pioneer Explorers of New Zealand, London, 1929.

Fischer, K.J., 'Hochstetter - the explorer of New Zealand. An exciting life from 1829 to 1884', Esslinger Zeitung, 24 December 1979, 11.

Fleming, C.A., 'Dr. Hochstetter in Nelson - Extracts from the Diary (February - December 1859) of Sir David Monro (1813-77)', New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 5(2), 1959, 954-63.

----, 'Hochstetter Centenary', Newsletter of the Geological Society of New Zealand, 7, 1959, 9-11.

----, 'Hochstetter Centenary', Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 88, 1960, 57-8.

----, 'Christian Gottlieb Ferdinand von Hochstetter', in The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol.1, 1769-1869, Allen & Unwin, Wellington, 1990, 199-200.

Fleming, C.A. and N. de B. Hornibrook, 'Notes on the Localities of New Zealand Fossils Collected by the Novara Expedition', New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 5(2), 1959, 841-5.

Flügel, E., 'Verzeichnis der in der Geol.-Palaeotol. Abteilung des Naturhistorischen Museums, Wien, Austria. Aufbewhahrten Typen und Abbildungsoriginale aus den Aufsammlungen der Novara-Expedition', New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 2(5), 1959, 826-43.

----, 'Statement Concerning the Types and Figured Originals from the Collections of the Novara Expedition in the Custody of the Geological-Palaeontological Section of the Museum of Natural History, Vienna, Austria', [English translation by J.T. Kingma], ibid.

----, 'Typen-Katalog', Annln. naturh. Museum, Vienna, 64, 1961, 5-104.

Haast, J. von, 'In Memorium: Ferdinand Ritter von Hochstetter', New Zealand Journal of Science, 2(5), 1884, 202-20.

Hauer, Franz von, 'To the memory of Ferdinand von Hochstetter', Jahrbuch der K.K. Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wien, 34, 1884, 601-8.

Heger, F. v., 'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', Mitteilungen der kaiserlich-königliche geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien, 27, 1884, 345-92.

----, 'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', Neuer Österreichische Biographie, 183-96.

Higgins, L.G., 'Dates of Publication of the Novara Reise', Journal of the Society of the Bibliography of Natural History, 4(3), 1963, 153-9.

Hoare, M.E., 'Learned Societies in Australia: The Foundation Years in Victoria, 1850-1860', Records of the Australian Academy of Science, 1(2), 1967, 7-29.

Hochstetter, F. v., 'Reise-Berichte von der Erdumseglung der Fregatte "Novara"', Wiener Zeitung, Wien, 18 May 1857 - 15 April 1859.

----, '[Letters of F. Hochstetter from on board the Novara]', Schwäbische Chronik, Supplement to Schwäbische Merkur, Stuttgart, 1858.

----, 'Über Diprotodon Australis (Owen), und Nototherium Mitchelii (Owen)', Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-naturwissenshaftlichen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenchaften, Wien, XXXV, 1859, 349. {'On Diprotodon Australis (Owen), and Nototherium Mitchelii (Owen)', Meeting Report of the Mathematical-Natural Science Section of the Imperial Academy of Science, Vienna}.

----, 'Notizen über einige fossile Thierreste und deren Lagerstätten in Neu-Holland', Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenchaften, Wien, XXXV, 1859, 349-58. {'Notice of some fossil animal remains, and their deposits in Australia', Meeting Report of the Mathematical-Natural Science Section of the Imperial Academy of Science, Vienna}.

----, 'Report of a Geological Exploration of the Coalfield in the Drury and Hunua District in the Province of Auckland, New Zealand', New Zealand Gazette, 2, 1859, 9-12; New Zealander - Extra, 14 January 1859; Auckland Province Government Gazette, 8(2), 1859, 14-17.

----, 'Lecture on the Geology of the Province of Auckland', New Zealander - Supplement, 29 June 1859; Auckland Province Government Gazette, 8(14), 1859, 87-100; New Zealand Gazette, 23, 1859, 162-74; Hochstetter & Pettermann, 1864(b), 8-43.

----, 'Lecture on the Geology of the Province of Nelson', New Zealand Government Gazette (Province of Nelson), 7(20), 1859, 90-102; Nelson Examiner - Supplement, 1 October 1859; New Zealand Gazette, 39, 1859, 269-81; Hochstetter & Pettermann, 1864(b), 77-108.

----, 'Geologische Aufnahmen in Victoria, Australien', Jahresbericht der K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt, Wien, 1860, XI, 24-26. {'Geological Reception in Victoria, Australia', Annual Report of the Imperial and Royal Geological Institution, Vienna}.

----, 'Schrieben des Herrn H. Ulrich aus Australien', Jahresbericht der K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt, Wien, 1861-2, XII, 23-28. {'Communication from Mr. H. Ulrich in Australia', Annual Report of the Imperial and Royal Geological Institution, Vienna}.

----, 'The isthmus of Auckland, New Zealand', Petermanns geographische Mitteilungen, 8, 1862, 81.

----, 'Rotomahana or the Warm Lake in the province of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand', Petermanns geographische Mitteilungen, 8, 1862, 263-6.

----, Neu-Seeland, Cotta'scher Verlag, Stuttgart, 1863, 575p.

----, 'Knochenreste und Gypsabgüsse solcher, aus Australien und Neu-Seeland', Jahresbericht der K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt, Wien, 1864, XIV, 36-7. {'Bone remains and related gypsum-castings from Australia and New Zealand', Annual Report of the Imperial and Royal Geological Institution, Vienna}.

----, 'Fossile Beutelthiere aus Australien', Verhandlungen der K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt, Wien, 1864, XIV, 36-38. {'Fossil Marsupial animal remains from Australia', Negotiations of the Imperial and Royal Geological Institution, Vienna}.

----, Reise ..... Geologischer Thiel. Ester Band: Abthlung 1, Geologie von Neu-Seeland, Hof- und Staatsdruckei, Wien, 1864. {Round-the world voyage of the Novara ..... Geological Treatise. Volume 1. Part 1. Geology of New Zealand}

----, Reise ..... Geologischer Thiel. Ester Band: Abthlung II, Palaontologie von Neu-Seeland, Hof- und Staatsdruckei, Wien, 1864, 274p. {Round-the world voyage of the Novara ..... Geological Treatise. Volume 1. Part 2. Palaeontology of New Zealand}

----, Reise ..... Geologischer Thiel. Zweite Band: Abthlung 1, Geologische Besbachtungen und Paläontologische Mittheilungen, Hof- und Staatsdruckei, Wien, 1866. {Round-the world voyage of the Novara ..... Geological Treatise. Volume 2. Part 1. ..... and Palaeontological Report}

----, New Zealand: its physical geography, geology, and natural history, with special reference to the results of government expeditions in the provinces of Auckland and Nelson. Translated from the German original, published in 1863, by Edward Sauter, .... with additions up to 1866 by the author, J.G. Cotta, Stuttgart, 1867, 531p.

----, 'Die Erdbebenfluth im Pacifischen Ocean vom 13 bis 19 August 1868, nach Beobachtungen an der Küste von Australien', Akademie Sitzunburgs, Wien, 1870, LX, Abthlung 2, 818-23. {'The earthquake-wave in the Pacific Ocean from 13-19 August 1868, as observed on the coast of Australia'}.

----, Geological pictures of the prehistoric world and the present world. For pictorial instruction and for information in school and family, Schrieber, Esslingen, 1873 [1973], 37.

----, Gessammelte Reise-Berichte von der Erdumseglung der Fregatte "Novara" 1857-1859, Eduard Hölzel, Wien, 1885, 340p. {Collected Travel-Logs of the Round-the-World Voyage of the Frigate Novara, 1857-59}.

----, Geology of New Zealand: Contributions to the Geology of the Provinces of Auckland and Nelson. Translated from the German and edited by C.A. Fleming, R.E. Owen, Wellington, 1959, 343p.

Hochstetter, F.v. and D.L. Mundy, Rotomahana, and the boiling springs of New Zealand: A Photographic Series of Sixteen Views, by D.L. Mundy, with descriptive notes by Ferdinand von Hochstetter, Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle, London, 1875.

Hochstetter, F.v. and A. Petermann, Topographical-geological Atlas of New Zealand, Justus Perthes, Gotha, 1863.

---- (a), Geological and Topographical Atlas of New Zealand: Six Maps of the Provinces of Auckland and Nelson, T. Dellattre, Auckland, 1864.

---- (b), The Geology of New Zealand: In Explanation of the Geographical and Topographical Atlas of New Zealand, T. Dellattre, Auckland, 1864, 112p. Trans. C.F. Fischer.

Hornibrook, N. de B., 'A Preliminary Statement on the Types of the New Zealand Tertiary Foraminifera described in the Reports of the Novara Expedition in 1865', New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 8(3), 1965, 530-6.

----, 'A Revision of the Oligocene and Miocene Foraminifera from New Zealand Described by Karrer and Stache in the Reports of the "Novara" Expedition (1864)', New Zealand Geological Survey Palaeontological Bulletin, No.43, Wellington, September 1971, 86p.

Kermode, L., 'Ferdinand Hochstetter in New Zealand', Newsletter of the Geological Society of New Zealand Historical Studies Group, No.5, September 1992, 16p.

Krämer, J.G., 'Ferdinand von Hochstetter: Geologist, explorer of New Zealand, superintendent of the Imperial Royal Natural History Court Museum in Vienna, 1829-1884', Schwäbische Lebensbilder, 2, 1941, 229-41.

Lodewyckx, A., Die Deutschen in Australien, Stuttgart, 1932.

Macadam. J. (ed.), 'Report on Ordinary Meeting - 16th November 1859', Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria, Melbourne, IV, 1860, xxvii-xxxi.

Murray-Oliver, A.A., 'Some Notes on New Zealand Geologists and Artists', New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 9(1-2), July 1966, 133-45.

Rice, Mabel (ed.), 'Hochstetter Centenary Issue', New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, vol.2, no.5, November 1959, 824-963.

Royal Society of London, 'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', in Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 1800-1873, London, 1869 & 1877.

Santifaller, L. (ed.), 'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', in Österreichisches Biographisches Lexicon 1815-1950, II Band (Glae-Hüb), Verlag Hermann Böhlaus Nachf., Graz-Köln, 1959, 345.

Sarjeant, W.A.S., 'Ferdinand von Hochstetter (829-1884)', in Geologists and the History of Geology - An International Bibliography from the Origins to 1978, Macmillan, London, 1980, vol.2., 1271.

----, 'Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger (1795-1871)', ibid., 1178.

Scholefield, G.H., 'F. v. Hochstetter', in A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Wellington, 1940, 399.

Tee, Garry J., 'Scientific Memorials - Part 2', History of Australian Science Newsletter, 42, March 1994.

Woodward, H. (ed.), 'Obituary - Dr. Ferdinand von Hochstetter', The Geological Magazine, London, I(XI), November 1884, 526-8.

Wurzbach, C.v., 'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', Bibliographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthum Oesterreich, Wien, 9, 1863, 74-8.

Manuscript Material

Clarke, W.B., [Letter to F. v. Hochstetter], Sydney, 30 November 1858, 10p. Hochstetter Papers, Austria.

Hochstetter, F.v., 'Geologie von New South Wales', manuscript notes [November-December 1858], 26p. Hochstetter Papers, Austria.

----, [Report on New South Wales Geological Specimens], Sydney, 6 December 1858, 3p. Zahl. 179/1859, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenchaften, Wien.

----, Neu-Seeland (5) und Australien', manuscript notes, 1859, 175p. Hochstetter Papers, Austria.

Keene, Wm., 'Visitors' Signature Book', Examiner of Coal Fields, Newcastle, 1858.

Mueller, F.v., [Letter to F.v. Hochstetter], Melbourne, 3 October 1884. Hochstetter Papers, Austria.

Smith, Prof. John, 'Memo respecting the Water of the Waikato & the Waipa, for Dr. F. Hochstetter', Sydney University, 14 October 1859. Hochstetter Papers, Austria.

Pictorial Material

'F.v. Hochstetter in naturalist's cabin on board the Novara', pencil sketch, 1857. Mitchell Library, Sydney, DG*D6 f.1.

'F.v. Hochstetter in seiner Kajute am Bord der f.f. Fregatte Novara', Illustrierte Zeitung, Leipzig, Nr. 758, 1858, 24. Line engraving, based on a pencil sketch by Joseph Selleny.

'K. Scherzer, F. Hochstetter, G. Frauenfeld and J. Zelebor', Illustrierte Zeitung, Leipzig, Nr. 759, 16 January 1858, 41. Line engraving, based on sketches by Joseph Selleny.

'Ferdinand Hochstetter', lithographic portrait, aged 29 years, 1858. Illustrated J.v. Haast (1884).

'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', Photographic portrait with geological hammer in hand, New Zealand, 1859, in Bruno L. Hamel, Album of Photographic Views, Auckland, 1859. Auckland Museum Archives C2679. Reproduced Kermode (1992).

'Reception by Takerai of Hochstetter's Exploring Party near Waipa River', 1859. Photograph by Bruno Hamel, Auckland Museum Archives C2654. Reproduced Kermode 1992.

'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', Photographic portrait, carte-de-visite [?Melbourne, 1859], in G.v. Neumayer 'Der Deutsche Verein von Victoria 1864', album of photographs. Private collection, Germany. Exhibited Goethe Institute, Melbourne, Victoria's 150th Anniversary Exhibition.

'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', photographic portrait by Julius Leth, Vienna. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, F944121/2 . Reproduced Kermode (1992).

'Ferdinand von Hochstetter', 1877, portrait in oil by Louise Codecasa. Historical and Antiquities Society, Esslingen. Reproduced Carlé (1988).

Ferdinand von Hochstetter', 1879, Photographic portrait by V. Angerer, Vienna. Illustrated J.V. Haast (1884) and V.v. Haardt (1885).


Index | Ship History | Scherzer Diary | Expedition Narrative | Sydney | Selleny | Bibliography | Novara Expedition
Hochstetter I | Blanche Mitchell Diary | Minnie Mann Diary | Hochstetter II | FitzRoy Dock | Scherzer in Sydney
Frauenfeld Diary | Incident at Sikyana | Sydney Chronology | Appendicies
| Lissa 1866 | Ferdinand Maximillian

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